If the Sun is essentially an electrical phenomenon, as seems the
case, and it is also a fairly typical star, then all stars should
exhibit properties that are consistent with the Electric Sun (ES)
model. Do they?
Let us extrapolate the ES model and compare it to
what we have observed about stars.
In 1911 Ejnar Hertzspung constructed a plot of the absolute
brightness vs. spectral class (temperature) of the stars whose
distances we could then accurately measure by the parallax method.
In 1913 Henry Norris Russell independently repeated this exercise.
This plot is therefore named the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram,
and is one of the first topics presented in introductory astronomy
courses. It is clear that the HR diagram is a plot of actual
observations – not something deduced from theory. So, any viable
model of the workings of a star must be consistent with it. Is the
Electric Sun (ES) model of how a star is powered consistent with the
If it is not, then this would disprove the ES
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
In the HR diagram, as it is usually presented, the vertical axis is
labeled with two scales:
Absolute Magnitude (linear scale from about
18th magnitude at the bottom running up to perhaps -8 or so at the
Luminosity x Sun (log scale with 0.00001 at the bottom
running up to 100,000 at the top).
The horizontal axis also is
labeled with several scales: Spectral Class - left to right: O and B
[blue], A [white], F [yellow], G [yellow-orange], K [orange], M
Another horizontal axis scale - Absolute Temperature, also runs from
left to right (from around 20,000 K down to 3000 K) corresponding to
the (decreasing!) black-body temperature of those spectral classes.
[As an engineer, I object to plotting increasing temperature from
right to left! But such is the convention of astronomers. We will
live with it.] A single given star defines a single point on this
plot. A web search for the topic "Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram" will
yield many different renderings of the HR plot.
Our Sun, being a fairly typical star, falls almost at the center of
the diagram (at Luminosity = 1 and Absolute magnitude. = 5, Spectral
Class G, and (photospheric) Temp. = 6,000K). The points on the plot
seem to group nicely, generally forming a long, slightly diffuse
line, that snakes from the upper left down toward the lower right.
The line falls very steeply at the lower right end.
There are two
other less populated clouds of points: one group at the upper right
and another one strung out across the bottom of the plot from a
concentration in the lower left of the diagram.
Add A New Horizontal Axis Scale
In the ES model the important variable is: current density (Amps/sq
m) at the star's photospheric surface. If a star's current density
increases, the arc discharges on its surface (photospheric granules)
get hotter, change color (away from red, toward blue-white), and get
brighter. The absolute luminosity of a star, therefore, depends on
two main variables: current density at its effective surface, and
its size (the star's diameter).
Therefore, let us add a new scale to the horizontal axis of the HR
diagram: 'Current Density at the Surface of each Star'. Consider
moving from the lower right of the HR diagram toward the left.
doing we are moving in the direction of increasing current density
at the star's surface.
Red and Brown Dwarfs
The first region on the lower right of the diagram is where the
current density has such a low value that double layers (DLs)
(photospheric granules) are not needed by the plasma surrounding the
(anode) star. This is the region of the brown and red "dwarfs" and
giant gas planets. Recent discoveries of extremely cool L - Type and
T - Type dwarfs has required the original diagram to be extended to
the lower right (See below). These 'stars' have extremely low
absolute luminosity and temperature.
Notice that the surface temperature of the T - Type dwarfs is in the
range of 1000 K or less!
For comparison purposes recall that some
points on the surface of Venus are in the range of 900 K. T - Type
spectra have features due mostly to Methane - they resemble
Jupiter's spectrum. The plasma that constitutes a star of this type
is in its 'normal glow' range - or perhaps, even the 'dark current'
If all stars are indeed powered by a nuclear fusion reaction
as is claimed, with the T dwarfs we must be in the 'cold fusion'
range! Indeed, for fusion reactions to occur, standard theory
requires that the temperature in a star's core must reach at least
three million K. And because, in the accepted model, core
temperature rises with gravitational pressure, the star must have a
minimum mass of about 75 times the mass of the planet Jupiter, or
about 7 percent of the mass of our sun. Many of the dwarfs do not
meet these requirements. One mainstream astrophysicist, realizing
this, has said that these dwarfs must be powered by 'gravitational
The orbiting X-ray telescope, Chandra, recently discovered an X-ray
flare being emitted by a brown dwarf (spectral class M9). This poses
an additional problem for the advocates of the stellar fusion model.
A star this cool should not be capable of X-ray flare production.
However, in the ES model, there are no minimum temperature or mass
requirements because the star is inherently electrical to start
with. In the ES model (if a brown/red dwarf is operating near the
upper boundary of the dark current mode), a slight increase in the
level of total current impinging on that star will move it into the
normal glow mode. This transition will be accompanied by a rapid
change in the voltage rise across the plasma of the star's
atmosphere. Maxwell's equations tell us that such a change in
voltage can produce a strong dynamic E-field and a strong dynamic
magnetic field. If they are strong enough, dynamic EM fields can
produce X-rays. Another similar phenomenon can occur if a star makes
the transition from normal glow to arc mode.
As we progress leftward in the HR diagram, at first the plotted
points move steeply upward; we enter the spectral M range where some
arc tufting becomes necessary to sustain the star's electrical
As current density increases, tufts (plasma in the arc discharge
mode) cover more and more of the surface of each star, and its
luminosity increases sharply – plasma arcs are extremely bright
compared to plasma in its normal glow mode. You can look directly at
neon signs but not at electric arc welders. This accounts for the
steepness of the HR curve in the M region – a slight increase in
current density produces a large increase in luminosity.
As we move
upward and toward the left in the diagram, stars have more and more
complete coats of photospheric arcs (tufting).
A case in point – NASA recently discovered a star, half of whose
surface was "covered by a sunspot". A more informative way to say
this would have been that "Half of this star's surface is covered by
The present controversy about what the
difference is between a giant gas planet and a brown dwarf is
baseless. They are members of a continuum – it is simply a matter of
what the level of current density is at their surfaces. NASA's
discovery supplies the missing link between the giant gas planets
and the fully tufted stars.
In fact, the term "proto-star" may be
more descriptive than "giant gas planet".
Main Sequence Stars
Continuing toward the left, beyond the "knee of the curve", all
these stars (K through B) are completely covered with tufts (have
complete photospheres), their luminosity no longer grows as rapidly
as before. But, the farther to the left we go (the higher the
current density), the brighter the tufts become, and so the stars'
luminosities do continue to increase.
The situation is analogous to
turning up the current in an electric arc welding machine. The
increased brightness of the arcs accounts for the upward slope of
the line toward the left. Mathematically we have the situation where
the variable plotted on the horizontal axis (current density) is
also one of the factors in the quantity plotted on the vertical axis
(luminosity). The more significant this relationship is, the more
closely the plot will approach a 45 degree straight line.
[Reminder: Our progression from right toward the left is not a
description of one star evolving in time - we are just moving across
the diagram from one static point (star) to another.]
That the stars do not all fall precisely on a line, but have some
dispersion above and below the line, is due to their variation in
size. The relatively straight portion of the HR diagram is called
the 'main sequence'. This nomenclature gives a false impression,
that stars move around 'sequentially' in the HR plot.
The HR diagram
is a static scatter plot, not a sequence.
White and Blue Stars
When we get to the upper left end of the main sequence, what kind of
stars are these? This is the region of O type, blue-white, high
temperature (35,000+ K) stars. As we approach the far upper-left of
the HR diagram (region of highest current density), the stars are
under extreme electrical stress - too many Amps per sq. meter.
absolute luminosities approach 100,000 times the Sun's. Even farther
out to the upper left is the region of Wolf-Rayet stars. Extreme
electrical stress can lead to a such a star's splitting into parts,
perhaps explosively. Such explosions are called novae.
process is called fissioning. A characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars
is that they are losing mass rapidly.
To quote from page 6 of Wal Thornhill's web site on the Electric
"….. internal electrostatic forces prevent stars from collapsing
gravitationally and occasionally cause them to "give birth" by
electrical fissioning to form companion stars and gas giant planets.
Sudden brightening, or a nova outburst marks such an event. That
elucidates why stars commonly have partners and why most of the
giant planets so far detected closely orbit their parent star."
If a sphere of fixed volume splits into two smaller (equal sized)
spheres, the total surface area of the newly formed pair will be
about 26% larger than the area of the original sphere. (If the split
results in two unequally sized spheres, the increase in total area
will be something less than 26%.) So, to reduce the current density
it is experiencing, an electrically stressed, blue-white star may
explosively fission into two or more stars.
This provides an
increase in total surface area and so results in a reduced level of
current density on the (new) stars' surfaces. Each of two new (equal
sized) stars will experience only 80% of the previous current
density level and so both will jump to new locations farther to the
lower-right in the HR diagram.
A possible example of two equal sized offspring may be the binary
pair called Y Cygni. This is a pair of giant O or B type stars that
orbit each other in a period of 2.99 days. Each star is some 5
million miles in diameter and 5000 times as luminous as our Sun -
absolute magnitudes about -4.5. They are some 12 million miles apart
(less than 2.5 times their diameters!). Their masses are 17.3 and
17.1 times the mass of our Sun.
If the members of the resulting binary pair turn out to be unequal
in size, the larger one will probably have the larger current
density - but still lower than the original value. (This assumes
that the total charge and total driving current to the original star
distributes itself onto the new stars proportionally to their
masses.) In this case, the smaller member of the pair might have
such a low value of current density as to drop it, abruptly, to
"brown dwarf" or even "giant planet" status. That may be how giant
gas planets get born (and are in close proximity to their parents).
There was an interesting statement made in this regard in the Jan.
1, 2001 issue of Science Now magazine (p.4).
scratching their heads over a strange new planetary system. A team
discovered a huge gas ball - apparently a failed star called a
brown dwarf - circling a star that holds another planet in its
sway. But no one understands how something so massive as a brown
dwarf could form so close to a normal star with a planetary
This was in an article called "An awkward trio disturbs
astronomers" by G. Schilling.
The final distribution of mass and current density is sensitive to
the mechanics of the splitting process. Such a process can only be
violent - possibly resulting in a nova eruption.
Some mass may be
lost to the plasma cloud that later can appear as a planetary nebula
or nova-remnant that surrounds the binary pair. If the charge on the
original star was highly concentrated on or near its surface, and
the fissioning process is similar to the peeling off of a onion's
skin, then most of that original charge (and current) may end up on
the offspring star that is constituted only of the skin of the
original star. In this way the smaller, rather than the larger of
the two members of the resulting binary pair, can be the hotter one.
In any event, both stars will move to different positions in the HR
diagram from where their parent was located.
Mainstream astronomy attempts to describe how stars 'age' (run out
of nuclear fuel) and slowly migrate, taking hundreds of thousands of
years to do so, tracing paths from one location on the HR diagram to
another (the star going from one spectral class to another). The
paths that stars 'must take' are, of course, completely predicated
on the assumption that stars are fueled by the various stages of
nuclear fusion of the lightest elements.
The ES model does not make that assumption. Humans have not been
around long enough to actually observe any stars making the
predicted slow migrations from one place on the HR diagram to
So, at present, slow "stellar evolution" is another one of
those complicated theoretical constructs that live brightly in the
minds of astrophysicists without any observational evidence of their
Examples That Falsify (Disprove) The Accepted Stellar Evolution
The star FG Sagittae breaks all the rules of accepted stellar
evolution. FG Sagittae has changed from blue to yellow since 1955!
It, quite recently, has taken a deep dive in luminosity. FG
Sagittae, is the central star of the planetary nebula (nova
remnant?) He 1-5.
FG Sagittae. Image: Keck
It is a unique object in the sense that for this
star we have direct evidence of stellar evolution but in a time
scale comparable with the human lifetime. [CCD Astronomy, Summer
"Around 1900 FG Sge was an inconspicuous hot star (T = 50,000 K) of
magnitude 13. During the next 60 years it cooled to about 8000 K and
brightened in the visual region to magnitude 9, as its radiation
shifted from the far-UV to the visual region. Around 1970 a whole
new bunch of spectral lines appeared due to elements such as Sr, Y,
Zr, Ba and rare earths. .... The star cooled further in the 1970s
and 80s and then all of a sudden in 1992 its magnitude
dropped to 14. Further drops occurred from 1992 to 1996 with
a very deep minimum near magnitude 16 in June of 1996."
So, after abruptly brightening by four magnitudes, it has dropped
seven magnitudes. From the end of the last century FG Sagittae has
moved across the HR diagram changing from a normal hot giant to a
"late spectral type" (cool) star with marked changes in its surface
chemical composition. Its present surface temperature is in the
range of 4000K. This is not the kind of slow stellar 'evolution'
mainstream astrophysicists preach.
And FG Sagittae is a binary pair!
The official wording was, "In 1995 FG Sge changed in brightness in a
quite sporadic manner from V~10.5 to ~13.0 according to the data by
Hungarian Astronomical Association-Variable Star Section. During the
spectral observations on 9/10 and 10/11 August, FG Sge was very
faint (HAA-VSS data: V~12.5-13.0, according to Variable Stars
Observers' League of Japan: ~13.3) and therefore erroneously the
visual companion 8'' apart from FG Sge was actually observed. This
is probably the first high resolution spectrum of the companion ever
obtained. The spectrum turned out to correspond to a quite normal
giant with the spectral type around K0."
Is FG Sagittae an example of the binary fissioning (caused by
electrical stress) that was described above? It seems to have all
the basic characteristics: nova-like brightening followed by loss of
luminosity and loss of temperature - moving to a different spectral
type with marked changes in its surface chemical composition,
discovery of a binary companion, and the entire systems lies within
a nebulous nova remnant.
Two More Examples That Falsify the Accepted Stellar Evolution
Virginia Trimble, professor of physics at the University of
California, Irvine, and visiting professor of astronomy at the
University of Maryland, has said recently:
"We don't often see stars change their spectral types in a human
lifetime. Thus, FG Sagittae, which brightened, cooled from about BO
to K, and added lines of carbon, barium, and other elements to its
spectrum in the century after 1890 was long seemingly unique. The
standard interpretation has been that it experienced its very last
flash of helium shell burning (the products are carbon and oxygen)
and was about to become an R Coronea Borealis variable.
carbon-rich stars that fade suddenly and unpredictably (which FG Sge
started doing a couple of years ago) and that have hydrogen-depleted
atmospheres (which FG Sge has just developed). In addition, the
"galloping giant" is no longer alone. Examination of old images and
spectrograms reveal that V 605 Aquilae, studied by Knut Lundmark in
the 1920's was a similar sort of beast, though it is now very faint
And the latest recruit is V 4334 Sagittarii, better known as
Sakurai's object, for its 1994 discoverer. It, too, changed both
spectral type and surface composition very rapidly, and is now
hydrogen-poor and carbon-rich, and well on its way to becoming the
century's third new R CrB star."
And Yet A Fourth Example - V838 Monocerotis
On October 2, 2002, NASA's
Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD)
announced what is to them another "mystery star".
The official "explanation" reads, in part:
"V838 Mon was discovered to be in outburst in January of this year.
Initially thought to be a familiar type of classical nova,
astronomers quickly realized that instead, V838 Mon may be a totally
new addition to the astronomical zoo. Observations indicate that the
erupting star transformed itself over a period of months from a
small under-luminous star a little hotter than the Sun, to a
highly-luminous, cool supergiant star undergoing rapid and complex
brightness changes. The transformation defies the conventional
understanding of stellar life cycles. A most notable feature of V838
Mon is the "expanding" nebula which now appears to surround it."
So now there are at least four prime examples of stars that do not
evolve according to the accepted thermonuclear model of how stars
are powered. These are stars that falsify the conventional
understanding of stellar life cycles. All of them act in a manner
predicted by the Electric Star hypothesis.
In the Electric Star version of "stellar evolution" things can
If the fusion model were correct, it would take
hundreds of thousands of years for a star to change from one place
in the HR diagram to another. It would not be observed within a
"human lifetime". It didn't take FG Sagittae hundreds of thousands
of years to "run down." The star V838 Monocerotis has moved half way
across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in a few months. Migrating
across the HR diagram can happen very rapidly - and apparently does!
How many such counter-examples does it take for astrophysicists to
realize their stellar fusion theory has been falsified?
The diffuse group in the upper right hand corner of the HR diagram
are stars which are cool (have low values of current density
powering them) but are luminous and so are thought to be very large.
They are highly luminous only because of their apparent size. And
that size may well be due to having a huge corona rather than an
inherently large diameter.
At any rate, these are the 'red giants'.
They are not necessarily any older than any other star. Notice that
some are relatively quite cool - in the range of 1000 K. How do
stars at this low a temperature maintain an internal fusion
The simple answer is: They cannot! And they do not!
beneath an extended diffuse corona, they may be quite small stars.
Similarly, the group in the lower left hand corner have very low
absolute luminosity but are extremely hot. The ES model simply
explains them as being very small stars that are experiencing very
high current densities. These are the "white dwarfs."
of them are concentrated in the lower-left corner of the diagram,
the white dwarf group actually extends thinly across the bottom of
the diagram. Thus the name white dwarf is a kind of misnomer. The
shape of this thin grouping begins to drop off steeply at its
(cooler) right end much as the main sequence does.
A professional astronomer has been quoted as saying:
"The observed white dwarfs are basically cooling embers. The nuclear
fire of the stars burned out billions of years ago. The light
emitted comes from the heat remaining from the earlier nuclear
burning. By measuring the spectrum of the light, the brightness in
various colors, the temperatures of the stars were determined. The
two coolest of the white dwarfs studied, PSR J0034-0534 and PSR
J1713+0747, are 3400 degrees Kelvin (5600 F), making them the
coolest known white dwarfs. For comparison, the surface of the sun
measures 5800 degrees Kelvin and the coolest previously known white
dwarfs are 4000 degrees Kelvin."
But then, why are these relatively cool stars called "white"? One
presumes it is only because they seem to be members of the grouping
in the HR diagram that was originally given that name.
Spectral Lines in Various Types of Stars
In a paper entitled “Stellar Spectra” (Aeon, Vol. V, No. 5, Jan.
2000, p. 37.) the late Earl R. Milton, Professor of Physics,
University of Lethbridge reported on research he had performed on
spectral line broadening in 1971 while at the Dominion Astrophysical
Observatory in Vancouver, British Columbia. This work provides
strong evidence in support of the Electric Sun model.
If a relatively cool gas comes between a wide-band light source and
an observer, absorption lines will appear in the light's spectrum.
These lines arise because of the absorption of (light) energy by the
atoms of the gas. Electrons in those atoms jump from lower to higher
discrete quantum energy states - they get the energy to make that
jump from the light (having exactly the frequency that corresponds
to that energy gap) that is passing through the gas. Each element in
the gas produces its own signature pattern of lines. By recognizing
the line patterns, we can identify the gas that is causing those
lines. This method is used to discern what elements and molecules
are present in the upper atmospheres of stars.
If, on the other hand, a sufficiently strong electric current is
passed through a gas, the gas itself will emit a light spectrum in
which only a few discrete colors (frequencies) appear. These are
called emission lines. They are located precisely at those
wavelengths (frequencies) at which that same gas produces absorption
lines as described in the previous paragraph.
The spectra of most stars are heavily dominated by absorption lines.
Spectra from the cooler stars (such as types G and K) are dominated
by molecular bands arising from oxides (like ZrO and TiO) and from
compounds of carbon like CH, CN, CO, and C2. Stars like the Sun
(type G) show “metal” absorption lines. Astronomers call any element
heavier than Helium a “metal”. In fact the Sun shows the presence of
68 of the known elements. The spectra of hot O and B type stars show
few lines, and what lines they do have appear quite blurred or
“broadened”. There are a few possible causes of this broadening.
If the absorbing gas is in a magnetic field, each line may split,
symmetrically, into multiple, closely spaced lines. This is called
the Zeeman effect - named for its discoverer, Pieter Zeeman
If the gas is in an electric E-field, then lines split
unsymmetrically - this is called the Stark effect named for Johannes
Stark (1874-1957). These secondary lines are very closely spaced in
frequency (wavelength) and so the effect is sometimes called
line-broadening or blurring. A most important property is that the
degree of Stark (electric field) broadening depends on the atomic
mass of the affected gas.
The lines of heavy elements are only
slightly broadened whereas those of lighter atoms and ions are quite
smeared out. This effect is not noted in Zeeman (magnetic field)
As we progress from right to left up the “main sequence” in the
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram – from the less electrically stressed
stars toward those experiencing higher current input, we see an
increasing broadening of spectral lines. In fact at the upper left
end (O-type stars) there is so much blurring that we can distinguish
very little structure in the line spectra.
Is this caused by the
increasing strengths of the E-fields in the stars' DLs as electrical
stress increases? And, is increased E-field strength the only
possible explanation for this line broadening?
Milton states that
two pieces of evidence strongly suggest that the answer is yes.
In highly stressed B-type stars:
A line at 4471.6 Angstroms is accompanied by a 'forbidden'
partner at 4469.9 Angstroms. It is well known that this latter line
only occurs when an electric field is present.
There is an extreme difference between the degree of broadening
of the lines from hydrogen and helium (light elements) and those
arising from sodium and ionized calcium (heavier elements). This
effect is only noted in Stark effect broadening.
The usual mainstream explanation of line broadening is that the star
must be rotating rapidly – light from the limb going away from us is
red shifted, and light from the limb coming at us is blue shifted –
the total effect being to smear out the line widths. BUT, if that
were the true explanation, the lines from hydrogen should be no more
smeared out than those from calcium. Both of these observations (1
and 2 above) strongly suggest that it is the presence of a strong
electric field that is selectively broadening the spectral lines in
There is no simple explanation of these spectral effects via the
(non-electrical) thermonuclear core model. So, let us consider to
what degree this phenomenon – the existence of spectral absorption
lines and their selective broadening – is consistent with the
Electric Sun model.
In the Electric Sun model it is clear that the photosphere is the
site of a strong plasma arc discharge. This produces the Sun's
continuous visible light spectrum. Immediately above this in the
Sun’s atmosphere there is the Double Layer (DL) in which an intense,
outwardly directed electric field resides. It is within this strong
E-field that many heavy elements are created by z-pinch fusion.
Recall that the strong E-field dethermalizes the ions in that region
and thus it is the (relatively) coolest layer of the Sun's
atmosphere. Light that originates in the photosphere passes through
the relatively cool, newly formed heavier elements in the DL. These
heavier elements selectively absorb energy from the light's spectrum
and thus the absorption lines are created. In fact they are created
in exactly the place where the Sun's E-field is strongest. Thus we
have the ideal situation for selective broadening of those lines due
to the Stark effect.
In those instances wherein we see emission lines in a star’s
spectrum we may speculate that, just as in the laboratory, the
easiest way to generate them is by passing a strong electric current
through a tenuous gas cloud. For example, type W (Wolf-Rayet) stars
are under such intense electrical input that they are hotter even
than type O stars.
They are located to the left of the top of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. They typically show strong emission
lines in their spectra. Since these stars experience stronger
electrical currents than any other type star, there is ample
probability that any tenuous coronal gases will be excited by such
currents to produce emission lines.
At the other end of the HR diagram, type M (relatively cool) stars
also sometimes exhibit spectral emission lines. Can we explain this
via the Electric Sun model as well?
Consider the star Betelgeuse – a
type M red 'giant'. The average density of Betelgeuse is less than
one ten thousandth of the density of the air we breathe. A star of
such tenuous nature has often been called a 'red hot vacuum'. The
outer surface of this tenuous sphere (the radius of which is larger
than the orbit of Jupiter from the Sun) has been found to have three
bright areas of photospheric tufting above which we would expect to
find DLs wherein z-pinch fusion may occur. It is from this source
that the absorption lines in the M-type spectra come.
addition, Betelgeuse is surrounded by a coronal plasma that extends
out several hundred radii from the surface of the star. This corona
is even less dense than the star itself. Thus we have a gigantic gas
cloud through which (according to the Electric Star model) electric
current is passing – an ideal situation for the production of
spectral emission lines.
So, once again, in the case of stellar emission and absorption lines
and their selective broadening, we observe a stellar phenomenon that
is more consistent with the Electric Sun model than it is with the
“fusion core” model (in which, of course, no mention is made of
Population I and II Stars
There are many ways to categorize stars. While observing the
Andromeda Galaxy, M 31, astronomer Walter Baade discovered that he
could distinguish between two general types of stars in that object.
He called them Population I and Population II.
Population I stars are located in the arms of the galaxy. They are
generally like our Sun; they are bright; are often blue giants, and
are typically members of the "main sequence" of the HR diagram;
there is usually lots of nebulosity, dust, and gas in their
vicinity. Mainstream astronomers call them "young" stars.
Population II stars are not found in the arms, but rather, in the
nucleus of the galaxy and in globular clusters that are situated
around its periphery. These are less luminous, cooler, with fewer
heavy elements; many are red and yellow giants; there is almost no
dust and gas in their vicinity. Mainstream astronomers call these
So we see that there is very roughly a lower-left half (Population
I), upper-right half (Population II) partitioning of the HR diagram.
Therefore, from the Electric Star point of view, we note that the
stars in Population I are more heavily electrically stressed than
those in Population II. In the next page we discuss the general
shape of galaxies and then will be able to point out that the usual
physical locations of these two star types in a typical galaxy are
vastly different in electrical activity.
The arms (where Population
I type stars are usually located) are the focus of strong Birkeland
Up until recently no (Population I) O or B type stars were observed
in globular clusters. It was thought that all stars in any given
globular cluster were of a similar age (old - Population II).
Therefore, it came as a big shock when it was discovered that there
were some blue "stragglers" (stars that hadn't "aged properly") in
certain clusters. It was said, in awe, that these stars were
"rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars"!
"Stellar evolution" doesn't seem to be working too well in these
Another example of "stellar evolution" that is difficult to explain
via the H-He fusion reaction is that in recent years, the centers of
elliptical galaxies (the other typical location of Population II
stars) have been found to emit unexpectedly high amounts of blue and
ultraviolet light. Elliptical galaxies (and the stars in them) are
thought to be quite old.
How, then, can there be so many "young"
blue stars in them?
One mainstream answer is that some dying old
stars suddenly decide to burn the Helium they had been previously
producing – or we hear (as always) the mantra that perhaps there
were "collisions between stars".
Stellar densities in galactic nuclei are typically 50 - 60 stars per
cubic light year. Each star occupies, say, 1/60 cubic LY. The cube
root of 1/60 is approximately 0.25 - so, each star is 1/4 light year
from its neighbor. (Remember Burnham's model: Two specks of dust
1/100 inch in diameter separated by a distance of 1/4 MILE.) What is
the probability of their colliding?
From the ES point of view, any star can move quickly across the HR
diagram if its electrical environment changes. Anyone who has seen
the aurora's plasma curtains moving and folding in the polar sky
realizes that Birkeland current filaments are not fixed, static,
things. They move around. If the galactic Birkeland currents move
around, it is likely they will move relative to some stars - either
increasing or decreasing the current densities these stars
experience. A blue star is just one that is experiencing the full
brunt of a strong Birkeland current.
"Blue stragglers" aren't
stragglers at all.
They are just blue.
When I was researching topics for this article, Wal Thornhill said
"Have a look at variable stars, particularly bursters, where I think
you will find the brightness curve is like that of lightning with a
sudden rise time and exponential decay. Some stars are regular and
others irregular. The irregular ones seem to average the power over
the bursts. When they are more frequent, the energy is less per
burst. If there is a long latency, the next burst is more powerful.
It's the kind of thing you would expect from an electrical circuit
when the trigger level is variable and the power input constant.
I think many variable stars are actually binaries with some kind of
electrical interaction. Long period Miras (A type of variable star)
may actually have an object orbiting within the shell of a red giant
(as I have proposed for the proto-Saturnian system)"
suggestion, I looked at the recent Hubble image of Mira itself, the
flagship star of that class of variable stars. Mira's image reveals
a huge plasma emission on one side of the star.
The official explanation
includes the words,
"Mira A is a red
giant star undergoing dramatic pulsations, causing it to become
more than 100 times brighter over the course of a year. …. Mira
can extend to over 700 times the size of our Sun, and is only
400 light-years away. The …. photograph taken by the Hubble
Space Telescope shows the true face of Mira. But what are we
seeing? The unusual extended feature off the lower left of the
star remains somewhat mysterious. Possible explanations include
gravitational perturbation and/or heating from Mira's white
dwarf star companion."
Mira has a white dwarf companion, just as Wal suggested was likely.
So, a much better possible explanation of its pulsating output is
that an electrical discharge is taking place between Mira and its
companion, much like a relaxation oscillator. It's not really
"mysterious" at all.
There are many examples of unequally sized, closely spaced, binary
pairs that are variable and emit frequent nova-like explosions.
SS Cygni - A yellow dwarf and a hot blue-white dwarf. Orbital period
6.5 hours! Separation distance 100.000 miles or less. Burnham asks,
"Is SS Cygni ..... dying out after having been [a full scale nova]
in the past?"
U Geminorum - A B-type blue dwarf and a G-type dwarf. Orbital period
4.5 hours! Separation distance a few hundred thousand miles. In this
case Burnham states,
"Spectroscopic studies reveal the existence of
a "rotating ring of gas" (plasma) around the blue star, and it
appears that the explosive increase of light is due not only to the
brightening of the star, but to a large increase of radiation from
Z Andromedae and R Aquarii - Both of these consist of a hot blue
dwarf mated to a red giant.
T Coronae and RS Ophiuchi - Both have recurrent nova-like eruptions
and are close binary systems.
Gamma Ray Bursters
If you check the web page
you will see the following description of what constitutes a "gamma
"October 13, 1998: Cosmic gamma-ray bursts have been called the
greatest mystery of modern astronomy. They are powerful blasts of
gamma- and X-radiation that come from all parts of the sky, but
never from the same direction twice. Space satellites indicate that
Earth is illuminated by 2 to 3 bursts every day. What are they? No
one is certain.
Until recently we didn't even know if they came from
the neighborhood of our own solar system or perhaps from as far away
as the edge of the universe. The first vital clues began to emerge
in 1997 when astronomers detected an optical counterpart to a
gamma-ray burst. In February 1997 the BeppoSAX X-ray astronomy
satellite pinpointed the position of a burst in Orion to within a
astronomers to photograph the burst, and what they saw surprised
them. They detected a rapidly fading star, probably the
aftermath of a gigantic explosion, next to a faint amorphous
blob believed to be a very distant galaxy."
Doesn't this sound like
An explosion, followed by
a rapidly fading star, accompanied by some sort of companion! Might
it be that the reason they "never [come] from the same direction
twice" is that the creation of the binary pair has relieved the
electrical stress (at least for a long enough time that we humans
haven't yet seen a recurrence)?
The February 2001 issue of Sky &
Telescope magazine contains these words,
"Does every gamma-ray burst begin with the supernova explosion of a
massive star? New observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory
and the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite suggest this is so. Some
astronomers think it's still too early to draw firm conclusions,
though they hail the new observations as revolutionary. In any case,
a link between gamma-ray bursts and supernovae seems to be
Although pulsars do not occupy a specific place in the HR diagram,
it is worth noting that they, too, have characteristics that are
most comfortably explained via the ES model. Pulsars are stars that
have extremely short periods of variability in their production of
EM radiation (both light and radio frequency emissions) . When they
were first discovered it was thought that they rotated rapidly -
But when the observed rate of "rotation" got up to
about once per second for certain pulsars, despite their having
masses exceeding that of the sun, this official explanation became
untenable. Instead, the concept of the "neutron star" was invented.
It was proposed that only such a dense material could make up a star
that could stand those rotation speeds.
But, one of the basic rules of nuclear chemistry is the 'zone of
stability'. This is the observation that if we add neutrons to the
nucleus of any atom, we need to add an almost proportional number of
protons (and their accompanying electrons) to maintain a stable
nucleus. In fact, it seems that when we consider all the natural
elements (and the heavy man made elements as well), there is a
requirement that in order to hold a group of neutrons together in a
nucleus, a certain number of proton-electron pairs are required.
stable nuclei of the lighter elements contain approximately equal
numbers of neutrons and protons, a neutron/proton ratio of 1. The
heavier nuclei contain a few more neutrons than protons, but the
limit seems to be 1.5 neutrons per proton. Nuclei that differ
significantly from this ratio SPONTANEOUSLY UNDERGO RADIOACTIVE
TRANSFORMATIONS that tend to bring their compositions into or closer
to this ratio.
Flying in the face of this observed fact, mainstream astrophysicists
continue to postulate the existence of stars made up of solid
material consisting only of neutrons, "neutronium". This is yet one
more example of Fairie Dust entities fantasized by astrophysicists
to explain otherwise inexplicable observations. The 'neutron star'
is simply yet another fantasy conjured up, this time, in order to
avoid confronting the idea that pulsar discharges are electrical
A nucleus or charge free atom made up of only neutrons
has never been synthesized in any laboratory nor can it ever be. In
fact, a web search on the word 'neutronium' will produce only
references to a computer game – not to any real, scientific
discussion or description. Lone neutrons decay into proton -
electron pairs in less than 14 minutes; atom-like collections of two
or more neutrons will fly apart almost instantaneously.
Perhaps some astronomers have begun to realize neutronium is
embarrassingly impossible. In any event, a less easily falsifiable
entity has now been proposed. Wal Thornhill has written about this
latest mainstream explanation of pulsar emissions:
"The discovery now of an x-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 (J1808 for
short), located in the constellation of Sagittarius, that flashes
every 2.5 thousandths of a second (that is 24,000 RPM!) goes way
beyond the red-line even for a neutron star. So another ad hoc
requirement is added to the already long list - this pulsar must be
composed of something even more dense than packed neutrons - strange
matter! ...When not associated with protons in a nucleus, neutrons
decay into protons and electrons in a few minutes. Atomic nuclei
with too many neutrons are unstable. If it were possible to form a
neutron star, why should it be stable?"
Picture Credit: W. Feimer (Allied Signal), GSFC, NASA
Explanation: This dramatic artist's vision shows a city-sized
neutron star centered in a disk of hot plasma drawn from its
enfeebled red companion star. Ravenously accreting material from
the disk, the neutron star spins faster and faster emitting
powerful particle beams and pulses of X-rays as it rotates 400
times a second. Could such a bizarre and inhospitable star
system really exist in our Universe? Based on data from the
orbiting Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite, research
teams have recently announced a discovery which fits this exotic
scenario well - a "millisecond" X-ray pulsar. The newly detected
celestial X-ray beacon has the unassuming catalog designation of
SAX J1808.4-3658 and is located a comforting 12,000 light years
away in the constellation Sagittarius. Its X-ray pulses offer
evidence of rapid, accretion powered rotation and provide a much
sought after connection between known types of radio and X-ray
pulsars and the evolution and ultimate demise of binary star
Yet another ad hoc fictional invention!
been getting away with this kind of nonsense for decades. How
ludicrous does it have to get before some responsible astronomer
cries out that this Emperor Has No Clothes On?
Some pulsars oscillate with periods in the millisecond range. Their
radio pulse characteristics are: the 'duty cycle' is typically 5%
(i.e., the pulsar flashes like a strobe light - the duration of each
output pulse is much shorter than the length of time between
pulses); some individual pulses are quite variable in intensity; the
polarization of the pulse implies the origin has a strong magnetic
field; magnetic fields require electrical currents.
characteristics are consistent with an electrical arc (lightning)
interaction between two closely spaced binary stars. Relaxation
oscillators with characteristics like this have been known and used
by electrical engineers for many years.
Therefore, I was pleased
when I saw the following announcement:
Hubble Space Telescope Observations Reveal Coolest and Oldest White
Dwarf Stars in the Galaxy:
"Using the Hubble Space Telescope,
astronomers at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have detected
five optical companion stars orbiting millisecond pulsars. Only
two other such systems are known. Three of the companions are
among the coolest and oldest white dwarf stars known."
It is becoming obvious that pulsars are electrical discharges
between members of binary pairs.
The Crab Pulsar
The "Crab Nebula" (M1) is a cloud of gas (plasma) that is the
remnant of a nova explosion seen by Chinese astronomers. Lying at
the center of the nebula is a pulsar- a star called CM Tauri. The
frequency of repetition of the pulsar's output is 30 pulses per
The length of each flash, however, is approximately 1/1000
sec., one millisecond! The obvious question to ask next is: Is this
star a binary pair? No companion is visible from even the largest
But, the Hubble orbiting telescope has
recently found a companion,
"a small knot of bright emission located
only 1500 AU (1500 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun)
from the pulsar. This knot has gone undetected up until now because
even at the best ground-based resolution it is lost in the glare of
the adjacent pulsar. The knot and the pulsar line up with the
direction of a jet of X-ray emission.
A second discovery is that in
the direction opposite the knot, the Crab pulsar is capped by a
ring-like 'halo' of emission tipped at about 20 degrees to our line
of sight. In this geometry the polar jet flows right through the
center of the halo."
M1 - The Crab Nebula
The shape of this pulsar centered object is exactly that of an
electrical homopolar motor - generator.
Supernova Remnant G11.2-0.3
On August 6, 2000, and October 15, 2000, the orbiting X-ray
telescope Chandra discovered a pulsar at the geometric center of the
supernova remnant known as G11.2-0.3. This observation provides
strong evidence that the pulsar was formed in the supernova of 386
AD, which was also witnessed by Chinese astronomers.
Credit: NASA/CXC/Eureka Scientific/M.Roberts
description of the image included the words:
"The Chandra observations of G11.2-0.3 have also, for the first
time, revealed the bizarre appearance of the pulsar wind nebula at
the center of the supernova remnant. Its rough cigar-like shape is
in contrast to the graceful arcs observed around the Crab and Vela
pulsars. However, together with those pulsars, G11.2-0.3
demonstrates that such complicated structures are ubiquitous around
Upon examination, the image of the central star reveals that it is
at the center of a 'cigar shaped' plasma discharge, not a 'bizarre
wind nebula' (whatever that is). Although no binary companion has
(yet) been found, the presence of the observed plasma discharge
makes one suspect it is only a matter of time.
Each new discovery of a binary pair of stars, one of which is either
a variable star or pulsar, at the center of a nova remnant, is one
more piece of evidence that Juergens' electric star model and
Thornhill's theory of the fissioning of those electric stars are
Electric Star Evolution
In the Electric Star hypothesis, there is no reason to attribute
youth to one spectral type over another. We conclude that a star's
location on the HR diagram only depends on its size and the electric
current density it is presently experiencing. If, for whatever
reason, the strength of that current density should change, then the
star will change its position on the HR diagram - perhaps, like FG
Otherwise, no movement from one place to another
on that plot is to be expected. And its age remains indeterminate
regardless of its mass or spectral type. This is disquieting in the
sense that we are now confronted by the knowledge that our own Sun's
future is not as certain as is predicted by mainstream astronomy.
cannot know whether the Birkeland current presently powering our Sun
will increase or decrease, nor how long it will be before it does
A fresh look at the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, unencumbered by the
assumption that all stars must be internally powered by the
thermonuclear fusion reaction, reveals an elegant correspondence
between this plot and the Electric Star model proposed by Ralph Juergens and extended by
Earl Milton. In fact the correspondence is
better than it is with the standard thermonuclear model.
in the shape of the HR diagram are exactly what the tufted electric
star model predicts they should be. The observed actions of
nova-like variable stars, pulsars, the anomalies in the line spectra
of B-type stars, and the high frequency of occurrence of binary
pairs of stars are all in concordance with Thornhill's Electrical
Universe theory, his stellar fissioning concept, and the Electric
Star model as well.
Completely mysterious and unexplained from the
thermonuclear model point of view is the 'impossible' evolutionary
behavior of FG Sagittae and V838 Monocerotis. Yet these phenomena
are perfectly understandable using the ES model.
We eagerly await
NASA's next 'mysterious discovery' to further strengthen the case
for the Electric Star hypothesis.