CHAPTER TWENTY


THRUSTING AND OROGENY

When nineteenth century geologists departed from their original simplistic uniformitarianism, they found it useful to identify in Earth history several points of great diastrophism (" turnabouts" in Greek) or revolution. Whence came the Laurentian, Algonkian, Killarney, Appalachian, Laramide and Cascadian Revolutions, each marked by profound unconformities in the rocks. Naturally a quantavolutionist will wonder why these never evolved into a new catastrophist geology. First, there was the obstacle of ideology, which a social psychologist can appreciate more than a natural scientist: the social atmosphere of the times, the breakaway from religion, the need of biology to pursue prolonged development periods, and the empirical fascination of studying the processes going on before one's very eyes -these acted to subdue diastrophism and revolutionism.

Long periods of slow changes were supplied until the revolutions themselves appeared as continual skirmishes of the elemental forces. The search for internal forces capable of sculpting the Earth's surface went so far as to conceive of the massive core of the Earth wobbling within the globe so as to push out or pull back crustal features. Some have thought of shrinkage, so that as the Earth aged it wrinkled (apparently not willing to move out upon the seabeds). Nowadays radioactive decay, rising from the rock deeps and engendering heat, has been called upon to push the continents slowly about. And this is said to crumple the colliding edges of continents into mountains and to stretch and reform the landscape.

A second reason why catastrophist geology could not evolve is also related to the ideological: geologists have refused to look into the skies for the forces needed to accomplish the revolutions that they perceived; without a mechanism, they were left with mere names -and questions, such as ones asked by K. Krauskopf [1] ; "What are the irresistible forces which can twist and break the strongest rocks?" "Where do the forces originate which can raise and lower continental masses vertically? ... Why have not forces in the crust long since reached an equilibrium? With questions like these we have long since reached an impasse."

Since we have essayed answers to questions of vertical movements for the sake of this chapter, we may add: "How can kilometer-high sediments be pushed over thousands of kilometers of the surface of the Earth?" Every thrust that has occurred or might happen can be described by the same few variables. The permutations resulting in reality may be numerous but are still intelligible. Price details several thrusts; Cook and Velikovsky describe a number; Burdick, Brock and Engelder have produced case studies.

It should be possible to conceptualize thrusting. Suppose a thrust as any lateral motion of a definite mass. The mass will have an initial velocity and acceleration, a momentum and inertia, a direction. It will have a surface to ride upon, and the interface will have a characteristic viscosity. The mass need not be solitary, even though it is definable; a limestone may be riding on a schist, or rock upon oil or water slurry, and so forth; hence there will be another set of variables for each definable component in a complex thrust.

Melvin Cook and Charles Hapgood employ prior ice caps as a mechanism of sudden diastrophism. Accepting prior calculations and proof of the existence of towering ice caps at the poles in recent times, they weigh the ice and decide that enough mass is available to cause unbearable pressures laterally (Cook) and a lever effect (Hapgood). The ice mass avalanches upon the world, perhaps in conjunction with the fracturing of the globe. The massive thrust of the ice bulldozes the surfaces of all sediments and biosphere in many areas; the fractured Atlantic region of Pangea, now the Americas, moves westward and the bows of the continents rise into high mountains as they plough through the oceanic crust. Hapgood adds a tilt to the Earth, product of the same event, and this permits him to add another string of disasters to that of the precipitating cause. I cannot criticize these works here. In general, to tie together the apparently interconnected Pacific Basin and continental movements I find a need for a more universal force.

Mountain ranges are folded. What is a fold and what is a thrust? There can be no fold without a thrust. Nor is there any major fold that comes from two opposite thrusts at the same time. There must be a source of the push that folds, and sometimes folds in two or three laps. And the push must be along a surface that is the base for itself and the fold. Conceivably an uplift might come from an expanding Earth or an attractive electrogravitational force above the Earth. In the latter case, however, irregular outbursts would occur, and the landscape afterwards would be volcanic or batholithic or like the seamounts of the ocean bottoms. In the former case the surface would crack, swell into circular rises of different sizes, cause gentle slopes, and also erupt in volcanism. There is no need to deny the ordinary idea of a fold as coming from a push.

Enough of the high mountain ranges of the world are poised at the edges of the continents to admit the possibility that they were pushed from behind by the moving continental mass. Their pitch, too, suggests a seaward thrust. If the thrust was initiated by ice blocks, they would ultimately take the form of a scow uplifted at the stern and bow. If in movement because of a forward electrogravitational slide and an upwelling and expanding lava flow from the rear, the bow would be much less pronounced than the stern. If the movement were accompanied by a swelling of the magma below, especially if the expansion were more pressing from the rear magmas, the scow would tend to nose down and come to its ultimate halt with towering mountains and deep roots. If the uplift were general beneath the thrusting mass, the prow and mass as a whole would lift itself, too, and ride more easily on the magma. Like a motorboat that rides higher as its speed increases, the continents would be elevated and move faster once in motion over a swelling magma. Unlike the motorboat, the continental blocks as a whole would not then sink; the supporting rock would be metamorphosized at a new density.

The emptiness of the Pacific Basin stands for an event quite capable of initiating global diastrophism once and for all. This would require the withdrawal from the Earth of a moon-sized body, in fact the Moon, an event that must call upon an enormous electro-gravitational attraction, which must come from a body even larger than the Earth that passed close enough to pull out over half the crust. And this event is described in Chaos and Creation and Solaria Binaria.

Thereupon all the terrestrial processes that Melvin Cook so well portrays proceed: the remaining crust fractures down to the mantle in an explosive network providing the globe-girdling rift and fault system. Orogeny occurs rapidly as the cut-apart continental blocks scramble for position. Cross-tides of water and wind race around the world. Rock and ice are in motion as great bulldozers, thrusting here and there. The immense number of faults, not only of the global girdles but practically everywhere, establish the infrastructure of the valleys and rivers of the world. The true ocean basins are created for the first time.

Under such circumstances and sequences of events, the vocabulary of science is strained. The most extreme case of thrust would be a force gripping or pushing the crust of the Earth like a shell so that it moves independently of the mantle and core. That such an idea may be rooted to some degree in reality is attested by studies proposing analogous movements in the Sun and Jupiter, and at least one suggestion that the Earth's core rotates out of step with the crust. The contacts of the crust with the plasmas of space and with its atmosphere may set up a continuous drag and eccentricity on the mantle, manifested for example in seismic and volcanic responses to heavy solar storms. Natural history may have witnessed, if not a complete and neat slippage of the crustal shell, some diastrophic approaches thereto.

I do not know where to place the finding of F. A. Vening-Meinesz: as related to lunar eruption, Earth expansion, rifts and fractures, landforms, or to thrusting? He studied the major topographic features of the globe in relation to the Earth's axis of rotation. Their pattern of shocking and shearing evidences a clockwise rotation of the crust in relation to the core of 70. That is, as the Earth moved east, its landforms struck out south by east [2] . The unified nature of his finding suggests a single giant thrusting episode sequential to the evacuation of the southern hemisphere.

The continents move; this is a form of thrust. Often it is a thrust through water and basalt bottom; then, again, the Indian subcontinent thrusted upon Asia. Sedimentary rock layers are scraped and dumped over the sides of the awesome abysses; here is thrusting. Coal fields are forests bulldozed and deep buried: this is a form of thrust. Mountains are piled upon one another, again a thrusting action. Tides and winds lay down field upon field of debris, of vast extent; are these not thrusts, too? It is fruitless to argue over definitions. As with earthquakes, which are moving earth, and shaking, so with thrusting: beyond a certain intensity, the vocabulary is inadequate to the quantity of cleavage, the quantavolutions. Then, too, earthquakes and thrusting can come to a marriage; in a discussion of even the relatively mild seismism of our times, Frank Lane writes that "where an earthquake is concerned there is no such thing as an unmovable object, even mountains are moved." They are thrusted.

Yet it has been a long time since "the mountains skipped like rams," as the Biblical Psalm goes. Although the records of solarian geology are far from complete, we suspect that such a sight has not been seen in the past two millennia. The occasional spectacular rock avalanches and submarine mud avalanches that are presently recorded are not what the Psalmist had in mind. In an age that experienced earthquakes abundantly, he was celebrating and reporting Yahweh at a peak of power, probably in the centuries that remained vivid to him -the seventh to the fifteenth before Christ -reinforced by the cherished accounts stretching back to the breakdown of the pangean surface.

He was speaking for the hapless ones who watched the Alps rise up from the Tethyan geosyncline to be "shoved northwards distances of the order of 100 miles" where now are located Italy and Switzerland. The famous "nappes" of the Alps are but smaller thrusts laid upon great ones. The alpine massif smothered the long rift that once cut through the "Adriatic Sea" and "Rhine River Valley." Or the American cordillera, thousands of kilometers long, stretching from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego; there mountain uplifts amounting to thousands of meters have occurred, it is agreed by a range of authors from C. Darwin to I. Velikovsky, in absolutely modern times. The Sierra Nevadas of California are a single block, a thousand kilometers long, thrust up westwards. The Himalayas rose steeply in human times. "The highest mountains in the world are also the youngest," wrote Helm and Gausser [3] . But the Himalayas are also reasonably accredited to the crumpling of the "Indian" subcontinent against Asia with the vast inertial forces initiated in continental rafting. And probably the rising of the Tibetan and African plateaus occurred under lateral and subterranean pressures of the same time.

One after another, explorers and writers have expressed surprise at the youthfulness of the mountain ranges until at least and at last all that are spectacular have been moved up in time to the age of humans. Velikovsky published a brief survey of this evidence citing the geological works of R. A. Daly, G. M. Price, R. F. Flint, B. Willis, A. Heim and A. Gausser, H. de Terra and T. T. Paterson, and R. Finsterwalder. He offered general catastrophic forces as the cause operating most often in human times. Melvin Cook placed orogenesis in a single set of great earth movements of human times. The present work unites the recent risings, the great global faulting, and exoterrestrial forces mainly of the lunarian age.

Cook uses huge avalanching ice blocks convincingly as the bulldozer of many thrustal incidents in America and, in one case, in South Africa. The ice sheets push the sedimentary strata for many kilometers, melt and flow around them, crack through them, scatter mounds of debris in their path "like loads of loose, dry snow thrown ahead of a fast moving snow shovel." [4] Possibly the only alternative to his mechanism would be rapid continental movement toward the south, deceleration of the basal movement of the crust, a swelling of the Earth beneath the rear echelons, inertial continued movement in the same direction by weaker overlaying sedimentary strata, in some cases even overrunning the halted forward elements. Under this scenario, one would have numerous cases of inverted strata, older on top of younger, and hence the fossil inversions sometimes deemed a disproof of evolution. One would also expect then the occurrence of thrusts in regions of the world where no ice sheets were at work; in fact the Alpine overthrusts, the Atlas mountains and other overthrusted areas were not near to overpowering ice masses.

Thrusting played a large role in the formation of coal, lignite, and fusain deposits, which range in depth from the surface down to over a kilometer. The distribution of world coal deposits, Cook shows, follows in significant part the radial avalanching of the ice caps. Coal deposits radiate from cracking and thrust points of the old ice cap and shell-slip. "Most coal deposits are found apparently squeezed by crustal thrusts, between the ice cap depression zones and the concentric, flow-resisting mountain ranges." [5] Ice cap fragments moved outwards upon the biosphere with the scooping and scraping motions of a giant earth-moving machine, depositing it, often smouldering, often slurried with ice and sky waters, into heaps, folded and thrust them over and in-between with thin sands, clay and gravel, and abandoned them in a state of thermal-retaining and heat-generating compression laterally and from above. Super-hurricanes, fast deep water tides, and typhoons can also scoop and pile up the total biosphere. Since the deep oceans did not exist during much of the quantavolutionary crises, the massive scoopers, scrapers, and in-folders might handle the marine life of shallow seas identically. Coal of different grades, and in thin beds, is interlarded with layers of ash, charcoal (fusain), clay, till, and pebble, that is, with all that goes before the blade of the bulldozer.

Velikovsky's summary of H. Nilsson's analysis of the lignite or brown coal of Geiseltal, Germany, is revealing. The original studies were the work of J. Weigelt and associates. There plants from contrasting climatic regions of the world are identifiable, as are insects, algae, fungi, reptiles, birds, and mammals, (including apes). "Plants are represented there from almost every part of the globe." [6] The material is well preserved: chlorophyll, colors, membranes, and nervature are in many cases apparent. The fossilization says Nilsson, happened lighting fast -"blitzschnell;" the catastrophic process is evident.

Nilsson explains the event by tidal waves moving in from around the world. The time is given as early Tertiary. Velikovsky is noncommittal. To us, more likely than tidal action would be cyclonic action: a great funnel of gases passed over a wide band of territory collecting the biosphere, macerating it, and finally dumping it. Little heat and pressure is needed to bake lignite. Carbon 14 would be low in coal deposits, not for the reason commonly given, that coal is an old deposit, but because it was not in a constant state of equilibrium and is, as Cook shows [7] , not now in equilibrium and, when the rate of growth of carbon 14 is projected backwards, it arrives at a zero state around 13000 years ago -subject to much turbulence, of course, but pointing to a thoroughgoing reformation of the atmosphere around that time.

Where is the thrusting and folding of the ocean bottoms? There is very little of it, unless, as we said, continental drifting is called thrusting. The seabeds are flat, save for the steep oceanic ridges, the great rises, and the innumerable seamounts.

Geophysicist Edward Bullard marks the contrast: The mountains of the oceans are nothing like the Alps or the Rockies, which are largely built from folded sediments. There is a world-encircling mountain range -the mid-ocean ridge -on the sea bottom, but it is built entirely of igneous rocks, of basalts that have emerged from the interior of the Earth. Although the undersea mountains have a covering of sediments in many places, they are not made of sediments, they are not folded and they have not been compressed [8] .

The last sentence points up an impossible predicament for conventional geophysics: a supposed situation in which the continental crust folds and thrusts and compresses into abundant mountains while the oceanic crust slides up and under and around without making mountains, having once and for all and by gradual processes made its igneous ridges and seamounts. That no continental mountains are to be found imbedded in oceanic basalts is remarkable. Considering how recently most of the mountain ranges of the Earth have formed, however, we surmise that the mountains came on the heels of the ocean basin creation or thereafter. But this points to the conclusion that the world has been flat until very lately. And this leads to the idea that quantavolutions of all kinds may have begun only recently.

The seamounts are igneous, and usually flat-topped. They came into notice during and since World War II. Their astonishing numbers point to a common and concurrent origin: almost all of them must have been both extruded and pulled up in the exoterrestrial engagement of the lunar fission period. There are no substantial currents to erode their tops and anyhow erosion creates peaks and gradual slopes. They are not volcano fields, connected underground by a piping system for magma flow.

Sedimentation on them is slight. Some have "surprisingly young" fossil-impregnated rocks on their beveled tops, write Heezing and Hollister [9] . Some of the fossils are subaerial, not marine. Could sea levels have been 400 meters and more lower than today, ask the same authors. (Actually, subaerial fossil species have been found at 1000 m depths.) Or could the ocean bottoms have subsided by that amount? Neither hypothesis finds favor.

They probably stem directly from the lava pavements of the ocean floors. They probably lifted up into a maelstrom of air and water, rather than grew up underwater like some volcanos, even now, are observed to form. For a short period they stood amidst a rising ocean of water. The water ceased to rise rapidly. Life took hold on some of them. After a couple of thousand years, an immense quantity of water was poured into the ocean. The seamounts now drowned.

The rhetoric of geology is overpowering in its stress upon time. It rolls along in the cadences of an epic poem, stressing eons of time like the pause at the end of the lines. But today has its poetry of the absurd, and this may drive the incessant echo for a moment from the mind. Consider, then, the absurd: that legitimate arguments can maintain, facing the geological world, an age of 10 9 years and an age of 10 4 years -ten billion against 10 thousand years.

The absurd, of course, is the theory of quantavolution: time is squeezed out of explanations of the Earth until only the minimal amount remains, like forcing the air out of a bottle until a nearly total vacuum is reached. The analogy is not so remote: some say that the Earth is losing its atmosphere, atom by atom, until one day, eons from now, it will move denuded of air in the vacuum of space. The same might be done in hours and days by the near passage of a body sufficiently large and electrically attractive to suck up the atoms of the atmosphere.

The absurd in geology makes statements of a related type. All the igneous rock and its formations of the Earth's crust, could be brewed by sudden heat over 1500 C and pressures over 5000 atmospheres within a few years. Igneous rock is the greater part of all rock. All rock that is metamorphic needs less heat and pressure to form, and the same short time. Metamorphic rock is a small percentage of all rock. Sedimentary rock, least common but plentiful nonetheless, by definition never boiled or overheated or intensely pressurized, can be laid and formed as fast as material is provided, this consisting of biosphere products, fall-out, and erosion of other sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rock.

Slower than all of these in forming are the biosphere products. Still, if upon the crust of the Earth were laid the seeds of plants and the eggs of animals, and these were enveloped in an electrified atmosphere, and souped up with nutrient minerals, a passage of several thousand years would find the crust blanketed kilometers deep in biotic debris. If one were intent upon preserving the evolution of species, species would mutate to their present forms in two to thirty leaps, say, and this would provide the varieties of today. It would, of course, require several thousand extra years. It is no secret, actually, that the fillip of evolution has supported geology's claim to time, rather than the contrary (except for radiochronometry); life takes longer than rocks, and fossils can be used by the theory of evolution to push back the age of the rocks.

The absurd idea still has not gone far enough; the Earth's surface and crust are a complicated mixture, of thin and thick pieces, of sliced and hacked out layers, and of dense and light materials, under different pressures and temperatures. How is it to be fashioned to bring order? Dispense promptly with the word "order". The natural order is largely in the mind. The "order" is a wish and illusion. Pursuing the absurd, the mixture of forms and materials of the Earth's crust are but the work of a clumsy chef, who shakes his pot, stirs it erratically, burns the bottom and adds ingredients to his strange tastes. Or, to assign no blame to a divinity, the same effects are achieved by forces born within the Earth and coming from outside of it, but great forces, of the kind that can form the materials. The force that can suddenly slow or change the world's motion can thrust and scatter about the formed materials, and concoct others. What can chop and grind and break the materials can inject all the heat and pressure to make them in the first place, and again and again.

What is more, in this absurd scenario of quantavolution, processes occur simultaneously. The chalk cliffs of Dover do not wait to form until the Anatolian chalk cliffs are made; nor does the mutation of species await a sunny "bowr of earthly blisse." While the Earth's crust is reforming into the Moon, a multitude of volcanos blaze, and deluges of water and debris fall upon the world. All the rocks everywhere are in movement, under pressure and exerting pressure; electricity exudes from every pore and catalyzes the already hard-working floods and vapors; radiation and adaptive saltations are differentiating many species and exterminating many more.

How does one argue against the absurd conception of natural history? One would draw books on the Grand Canyon of Colorado from the shelves showing "two billion years of history passing before one's eyes." But the quantavolutionary vision of the Grand Canyon springs readily to mind: the complex can be put together in a short time in uplift and cross-cutting floods, then cleaved, supplied with torrents, and finally quieted down to make it attractive for tourists. Should one appeal to radiochronometry to resolve the vision, it occurs that the radioactive isotopes might have been stopped or raced in the catastrophic maelstrom. We recall again some of the features of the Earth's surface previously discussed. One by one, it would appear, the morphological features of the world succumb to quantavolutionary explanation.

"Long distance overthrusting has occurred (a) for whole continents over the ocean crust where overthrusting has been several thousand miles (continental drift), and (b) for the superficial Cambrian and 'younger' sediments over the continuous, strong basement rock." (Cook) The greatest thrust and rift and the smallest rock-crack can be considered as "faults."

"Shields [the flat barely covered rock of Canada, Scandinavia, and elsewhere] are here interpreted as crustal rocks denuded of sediments by thrusts of their original sediments from beneath the ice caps driven by the hydrostatic pressure and the friction of the ice flow" (quoting Cook). "Welts" define pre-Cambrian rocks (that is, with slight signs of life), exposed at the surface as a result of uplifts and crustal buckling.

Huge troughs such as the Mississippi Valley are the result of an immense flow of turbid ice-laden waters and tidal flooding, so recent that spectacular anomalies such as the great New Madrid earthquake can occur.

Countless rubble hills are dumped in place by floods and wind from rocks expanded and broken up by earthquake. Most of the rubble orogeny has occurred in times of quantavolution, not by evolution nor uniformly bit by bit.

Uprisings occur through collision of rock masses, undercutting, compression, heat expansion of undercrust, and cooling of quasi-exploded material. Here would be included the igneous mountains of the world, such as St. Helens or Vesuvius. Here also would be earth that did not escape upon explosion and appears as mounds or hills swollen up (not buckled). Here too would be broad plateaus caused by a heat-expanded crust that cooled in its expanded form at great heights.

Finally, closely related to the previous item, are the submarine ridges around the world and the myriad seamounts (guyots). The ridge mountains, the world's tallest, are igneous productions, still bubbling and bursting along their length. The seamounts, as noted earlier, are the taffy-like pullback, unexploded lava blisters of the lunarian outbursts.

Quantavolutionary theory, then, holds that any hill and mountain of the Earth can be explained by concepts such as these. All involve energies that erase millions, even hundreds of millions of assigned years of time. Nor is it difficult, either, to imagine a quantavolutionary definition of other features not before discussed.

Where a gorge, a rift, or a canyon is observed, we are traumatized into seeing faults, fissures and turbulent waters rushing to shape them.

Where others see placid lakes, long ago hollowed from rock and fed from melting ice, we see land sinks, quick filling with avalanching waters, now stranded and in all shortlived.

Where deep surface deposits of clay, pebbles, sand, till and their associated rocks occur, we see tidal catastrophes, cyclones, and exoterrestrial fall-out.

In lava fields are seen, not occasional flare-ups after long-prepared mantle heating, but the rivers of boiling rock forced up and out by large earth movements and expansion.

Fan deposits are not gradual accretions at the foot of a flow, but sudden dumps by turbulent currents, and the continental slopes are the largest of fans.

Catastrophic winds, tides, and floods form dunes and peneplains, abetted by seismism.

Basins are formed and erupted by catastrophic uplift, changed Earth motions, or meteoroid impact explosions.

What is left to mention in the lexicon of landforms? We still have to do justice in succeeding chapters to several major Earth features: the ocean basins; the rifts, canyons and channels; and the sediments, including the continental slopes. Otherwise one is driven into sub-classification. Faults, for example, can be classified into tilts, grabens, horsts, and troughs and each of these is divided into sub-categories; these are treated in textbooks and present no unsurmountable obstacle to quantavotutionary theory. Each of these pertains to its parent-category faults -and cannot supply something which the parent lacks. Metamorphic rock is of many kinds -schists, gneiss, limestone, marble mycorites and migmatites -and a natural history museum will present an orderly array of them.

The world "order" occurs again. And again the order is in our minds. The several conditions of heat and pressure and the several minerals that altogether manufactured these rocks were a disordered composition baking inside a faulty oven. One is seduced by the vast quantities observed of each type into imagining orderly production. A tall mountain of sedimentary rocks appears orderly to us, but so does the simple snowflake under a microscope.

One is impressed also by the very many material compositions and forms. But this is an illusion arising from the many different combinations which a few conditions and chemical elements can create; a mere eight separate states of being, described in terms of a temperature, a pressure, and a chemical compound free to combine, can, after all, supply some 2 8 or 256 entities to contemplate. There is order in all things and alongside this order there is chaos in all things; that is, we can look at any event or thing as orderly or chaotic, just as Parmenides looked at the permanence of being and Heraclites at its eternal flux.

Where in the world is the remaining virgin land of Pangea? If one is to believe surveys of the presence around the world of all the conventional geological ages, the answer is "practically nowhere." Perhaps 2% of the world's land can claim a full geological column. The ages are either a fiction, or the victims of quantavolution.

Still, even at this early stage of quantavolutionism, when few minds -and even fewer resources -have been brought to bear on the issues, it appears that by employing only a modest increment of time, quantavolution can move from the absurd to some respectable level of probable validity. One can comfortably and scientifically operate given an Earth age of a million years, with a late resurfacing of the Earth accomplished during the past fourteen thousand years.

It might seem impossible to reconcile the 5000-times-greater time span of conventional geological theory. Actually it is not impossible. The processes reflected in the Grand Canyon profile could be temporarily collapsed by a factor of 5000, making every five million years become a thousand years, without scrambling ordinary explanations. The rules to reduce time are: increase heat; increase pressure; add motions; introduce electric potentials; and look into the skies. Says the sage to the astronomer, writes Friedrich Nietzsche: "As long as you still experience the stars as something 'above you' you lack the eye of knowledge." [10]

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Notes (Chapter Twenty: Thrusting And Orogeny)

1. Quoted by Kelly and Dachille, op. cit., 76.

2. Discussed in Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval, 125-6.

3. Ibid., 78.

4. Cook, op. cit., 188.

5. Ibid., 11.

6. Supra, 219-20. On Nilsson, further, see B. Gray, VII Kronos 4 (Summer 1982), 8-25.

7. "Continental Drift," Utah Alumnus (Sept. 1964) 12, and see discussion, ibid., Nov. 1963, Oct. and Nov. 1964.

8. "Origins of the Oceans," op. cit., 19.

9. Op. cit., 521.

10. Beyond Good and Evil, Epigram 71.