Ebola - Where Did They Really Come From?
Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz
About the author: Leonard G. Horowitz,
D.M.D., M.A., M.RH. is a Harvard graduate and internationally known
public health education authority. One of healthcare's most
captivating motivational speakers, Dr. Horowitz is a prolific author
with ten books and more than eighty published articles to his
This article is based on Dr.
Horowitz's new and most controversial book
Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola—Nature,
Accident or Genocide?
During the 1960s and early 1970s the World Health Organization
(WHO) functioned as the omnipotent supplier and standardizing
authority of the world's experimental pharmaceuticals. In the field
of virology, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS)
and National Institutes of Health (NIH) directed the
National Cancer Institute (NCI) to become, along with
the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
the WHO's chief distributor of viruses and antiviral vaccines.
The WHO Chronicle noted by 1968—ten
years into the WHO's viral research program—"WHO virus reference
centers" had served as authorized technical advisors and suppliers
of "prototype virus strains, diagnostic and reference reagents
(e.g., antibodies), antigens, and cell cultures" for more than "120
laboratories in 35 different countries." Within a year of this
announcement, this number increased to "592 virus laboratories..
[and] only 137 were outside Europe and North America."
Over these 12 months, the NCI and CDC
helped the WHO distribute 2,514 strains of viruses, 1,888 ampoules
of antisera mainly for reference purposes, 1,274 ampoules of
antigens, and about 100 samples of cell cultures. More than 70,000
individual reports of virus isolations or related serological tests
had been transmitted through the WHO-NCI network.12
At the NCI in Bethesda, Maryland, from the late 1960s to the
present, the chief retrovirus research laboratory was associated
with the Department of Cell Tumor Biology, and chaired by Dr. Robert
Gallo—an esteemed member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
who was hailed by the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services
Margaret Heckler in 1984 as the discoverer of the AIDS virus, HTLV-III.
LAV, identical to HTLV-III had been
isolated by Montagnier's French team and allegedly forwarded to
Gallo in 1983.3
MILITARY ORDERS FOR AIDS-LIKE VIRUSES:
THE BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS CONTRACTORS
As early as 1970, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) appropriated
at least $10 million to "initiate an adequate program through the
National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC)" to
make a new infective microorganism which could differ in certain
important aspects from any known disease-causing organisms.
Most important of these [aspects] is
that it might be refractory to the immunological and therapeutic
processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from
infectious disease. Members of the NAS-NRC had instructed scientific
leaders in the DOD this work might be accomplished "within 5
years."4 This research was then carried out by American defense
contractors despite the authorization and signing of the Geneva
accord by Dr. Henry Kissinger and President Nixon outlawing the
production and testing of such biological weapons.5
Also in 1970 Gallo and his co-workers presented research describing
the experimental entry of bacterial ribonucleic acid (RNA) into
human white blood cells (WBCs) before a special symposium sponsored
by NATO.6 The paper published in the Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences discussed several possible mechanisms prompting
the "entry of foreign nucleic acids" into lymphocytes—the cells
principally attacked by HIV.
Prior to this, Gallo et al. had
published studies identifying:
mechanisms responsible for
reduced amino acid and protein synthesis by T-lymphocytes
required for immunosuppression;7
specific enzymes required to
produce such effects along with a "base pair switch
mutation" in the genes of WBCs to create immune system
methods by which WBC "DNA
degradation" and immune system decay may be prompted by the
"pooling" of purine bases and/or the addition of specific
Subsequent studies published in 1970 by
Gallo and co-workers identified "RNA dependent DNA polymerase"
(i.e., the unique AIDS-linked enzyme, reverse transcriptase)
responsible for "gene amplification... biochemical cyto-differentiation,"
(i.e., the development of unique WBC characteristics including
cancer cell production) and "leukaemogenesis";10 and identified L-Asparaginase
synthetase—a key enzyme that, if repressed, will induce treatment
resistant leukemias and other cancers.11
The year following the $10 million appropriation by the DOD for
AIDS-like biological weapons research, the NCI acquired the lion's
share of the facilities at America's premier biological weapons
testing center, Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland.12
coincidentally, the Cell Tumor Biology Laboratory's output increased
in 1971 as measured by the publication of eight scientific articles
by Gallo and co-workers compared to at most four in previous years.
These reports included Gallo's discovery
that by adding a synthetic RNA and feline (i.e., cat) leukemia virus
(FELV) "template" to "human type C" viruses (associated with cancers
of the lymph nodes), the rate of DNA production (and subsequent
provirus synthesis) increased as much as thirty times. The NCI
researchers reported that such a virus may cause many cancers
besides leukemias and lymphomas including sarcomas.13
In this 1971 report Gallo et al. also reported modifying simian
(i.e., monkey) viruses by infusing them with cat leukemia RNA to
make them cause cancers as seen in AIDS patients.13
Furthermore, Fujioka and Gallo concluded from studies conducted in
late 1969 or early 1970 that they would need to further "evaluate
the functional significance of tRNA changes in tumor cells," by
designing an experiment in which "specific tumor cell tRNAs" would
be "added directly to normal cells." They explained that one way of
doing this was to use viruses to deliver the foreign cancer
producing tRNA to normal cells. The viruses which were then employed
to do this, the researchers noted, were the simian virus (SV40) and
the mouse parotid tumor (polyoma) virus.14
Such experiments clearly advanced immunodeficiency virus technology
and even provided a model for the development of HIV, the AIDS
virus—allegedly of simian virus descent—which similarly delivered
unique enzymes and a foreign RNA to normal cells necessary to cause
an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in animals and humans.
DEVELOPING MORE AIDS-LIKE VIRUSES
In 1972, Gallo, his superiors and inferiors studied portions of
simian viruses to determine differences in RNA activity between
infected versus uninfected cancer cells, and whether the differences
could be ascribed to the infection and related DNA alterations.15
They stated that "by studying viral or
cellular mutants or cell segregants... which have conditional
variations in virus-specific cellular alterations, it should be
possible to more precisely determine the biological significance of
the RNA variation reported here." Clearly, the group was working to
determine the relevance of various viral genes on the development of
human cancers and immune system collapse. They reported their desire
to use this information to find a cure for cancer, but at this time
their activity was more focused on creating various cancers as well
as new carcinogenic viruses which could infect humans.
For example, Smith and Gallo published another National Academy of
Sciences paper examining DNA polymerase (i.e., reverse
transcriptase) activity in immature normal versus acute leukemic
lymph cells. To do so, they evaluated the single stranded 70S RNA
retrovirus found in chickens which causes prominent features of AIDS
including WBC dysfunction, sarcomas, progressive wasting and
Borrow, Smith and Gallo injected this
chicken virus RNA into human WBCs to determine if the cells were
prompted to produce proteins (including new viruses) encoded by the
viral RNA.17 Robert, Smith and Gallo also evaluated the neoplastic
effects of single stranded 70S RNA reverse transcriptase delivered
by the cat leukemia virus (FELV) and the mason-Pfizer monkey virus
on nor-mal human lymphocytes (NHL).18
This work foreshadowed the observation made ten years later by the
CDC's chief AIDS researcher, Dr. Donald Francis who noted the
"laundry list" of feline leukemia-like diseases associated with
Other examples are detailed by Gallo and co-workers while discussing
their adapting monkey, rat, and bird leukemia and tumor viruses for
experimental use in a human (NC-37) cell line.19 Wu, Ting and
Gallo20 discussed the synthesis of new RNA tumor viruses "induced by
5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, IdU (a constituent of RNA) in rodent cell
cultures, and noted that chemotherapy might be used to halt the
reverse transcriptase-linked viral reproduction.
However, had HIV been synthesized for military purposes from various
species components, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to
prove. As Gillespie, Gillespie and Gallo et al. noted in 1973
concerning the origin of the RD114—another cat/human bioengineered
virus—"it can always be argued that" a virus which naturally jumped
species (as HIV is alleged to have done from the monkey) would be
expected to have antigens that differ "from the antigen found on the
viruses of known" origin.21
LITTON BIONETICS - GALLO'S LINK TO THE
Four years later, during a U.S. Senate investigation of illegal
"biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of
Defense," Senators learned that Bionetics, Bionetics Research
Laboratories, and Litton Bionetics—an organization which, along with
the NCI, administered and provided Dr. Gallo's research funding10,13,15,17-19,22,26
were not only acknowledged DOD biological weapons contractors, but
their affiliated Litton Systems, Inc., was among the most frequently
contracted institutions involved in biological weapons research and
development between 1960 and 1970 (the end of the reported
Additional bio-logical weapons
contractors with whom Dr. Gallo and/or his co-workers associated
during the late 1960s and early 1970s included the University of
Chicago,24 Texas,13 Virginia,25 and Yale,17 Merck and Co. Inc.,20
and Hazelton Laboratory, site of the famous 1989 Marburg-Ebola-like
(Reston) virus outbreak.22
NCI staff reports revealed that Litton Bionetics had been granted
the service contract to supply all NCI researchers, worldwide, with
virtually every primate cancer research material requested,
including seed viruses, viral hybrids, cell lines, experimental
reagents, and African colony born monkeys including M. mulatta and
C. aethiops which were associated with the major monkey AIDS virus
outbreaks in California's Davis Lab, and the 1967 Marburg virus
outbreaks in three European vaccine production facilities.15-17
Litton Bionetics chief John Landon reported an experiment begun in
1965 when he inoculated 18 monkeys with rhaabdovirus simian—a rabies
virus known to cause Ebola-like hemorrhagic fever in monkeys. "Nine
[monkeys] died or were transferred," to allied laboratories or
vaccine production facilities. This shipment was likely to have
started the first hemorrhagic fever "Marburg virus" outbreak among
European vaccine laboratory workers in 1967. As noted by the world's
leading simian virus expert at the time, Dr. Seymour Kalter, the
Marburg virus was apparently manmade.23-25
In fact, Litton Bionetics, the chief military and industrial
supplier of primates for cancer virus experimentation during the
1960s and early 1970s, also maintained the colony of the specific
genus of monkeys associated with all of the major monkey AIDS virus
outbreaks in the United States.23
Through telephone interviews with Litton Bionetics and MedPath
administrators, I learned that Bionetics Research Laboratories had
been sold to MedPath Corporation—one of America's largest medical
and blood testing laboratories—a division of Dow Corning. Dow
Coming's parent, Dow Chemical Company, was also listed among the
Army's chief biological weapons contractors during the 1960s and
Litton Bionetics, a subsidiary of Litton
Industries, Inc. remains in business as a proprietor of the
Frederick Cancer Research Center, a "privately owned, government
contracted" facility. Bionetics, it was noted, currently acts as an
"contract to manage and operate the Frederick (Md.)
[Fort Detrick affiliated] Cancer Research Center for the National
Besides administering research grants and
government funds earmarked for the NCI, Litton Bionetics also
developed a division which produced and marketed test kits for
blood-borne, infectious diseases including mononucleosis, hepatitis
B, and AIDS.28 This division was sold to Organon Teknica in 1985.26
Apparently, the military-medical-industrial complex was well aware
of Litton Industries' service as a DOD and NATO contractor. In 1978,
the company was indicted for filing false claims for $37 million in
cost-over-runs during the building of three nuclear submarines under
one of several multi-billion dollar defense contracts.29'34
ZAIRE AND ANGOLA: A CIA MILITARY ARENA
Between 1970 and 1975, the period the NAS-NCR scientific advisors
informed DOD decision-makers that AIDS-like viruses could be
readied,4 American cold war efforts focused on Zaire and
Angola.33-35 Following the withdrawal of American forces in Vietnam,
Secretary of State Henry Kissinger ordered the CIA to begin a major
covert military operation against MPLA (communist bloc backed)
"rebels" in Angola.36-37
Zaire, indebted by over $4.5 billion to
the International Monetary Fund, and headed by President
Mobutu—paradoxically regarded as one of the world's wealthiest men
with "a personal fortune put at $2,939,200,000 [1984 estimate]
banked in Switzerland—was wooed by NATO allies during the 1970s
(principally the U.S.) to be a staging area for CIA backed,
Portuguese, French, and mainly South African mercenaries.38,39
"American corporate investment,
notably in copper and aluminum, doubled to about $50 million
following a 1970 visit by Mobutu to the United States. Major
investors included Chase-Manhattan, Ford, General Motors, Gulf,
Shell, Union Carbide, and several other large concerns."43
However, in 1975 Mobutu apparently
turned against NATO allies and increased negotiations with China and
Russia40-41 He proclaimed his intention to nationalize foreign owned
enterprises.4243 In June 1975, following the CIA's thwarted efforts
to convince the U.S. Congress to appropriate more funds for Mobutu
and the Angola program (A total of $31.7 million had already been
"drawn from the CIA's FY 75 contingency fund" which was "exhausted
on 27 November 1975").39 Mobutu expelled the American ambassador and
arrested many of the CIA's Zairian agents, placing some under death
The following year, in October 1976, the "Ebola Zaire virus"
broke-out in "fifty five villages surrounding the [Yambuku]
hospital" first killing "people who had received injections." Mobutu
then ordered his army to "seal off the Bumba zone with roadblocks"
and "shoot anyone trying to come out" so "no one knew what was
happening, who was dying, [or] what the virus was doing."44
Shortly thereafter, Ebola victim specimens were sent to the CDC,
Special (meaning "secret" within the American intelligence
community) Pathogens Branch; to Porton, England's controversial
chemical and bio-logical weapons (CBW) laboratories;45 and teams of
WHO and CDC researchers were dispatched to the Ebola region in
Mobutu's private, American supplied C-130 Buffalo troop transport
By the end of 1976, the Zairian leader had reconciled his
differences with the American intelligence and corporate communities
believing that Zaire would continue to reap his non-communist
allies' social and economic aid. On April 4, 1977, Mobutu suspended
diplomatic relations with Cuba; on April 21, reduced ties with the
Soviet Union; and on May 2, he cut ties with East Germany.46
Meanwhile, according to John
Stockwell, Former Chief of the CIA's Angola Task Force, "the
United States was exposed, dishonored and discredited in the eyes of
the world," as "15,000 Cubans were installed in Angola"40 despite
the CIA's best efforts and a continuing policy of lying "to State
Department officials, Congressmen, American press, and world public
opinion in varying degrees, depending on the need" about the CIA's
covert military campaign in Angola and Zaire.39
Throughout 1976 and 1977, Mobutu, NATO, and the CIA, constrained by
the Tunney, Cranston and Clark amendment which prevented the
expenditure of American funds in Zaire/Angola, except to gather
intelli-gence,39 remained embroiled in the "Shaba rebellion" against
allegedly Russian-backed "Katangan rebels."46
At the same time, perhaps not coincidentally, NATO ally West Germany
was pouring financial aid into Zaire and white ruled South
Africa.47-49 The Northeast region of Zaire, believed to be the
epicenter of the AIDS epidemic, was specifically targeted for West
German economic aid and industrialization.50
The "long tradition of friendship between Germans and South
Africans" London's African Development noted, "dates back from the
first waves of white immigrants to South Africa and the feeling of
solidarity between Germans and Afrikaners during the Boer War,
continuing throughout the First World War and then the Second World
Many of today's Nationalist leaders in
Pretoria," the paper reported, "were Nazi sympathizers: many
ex-Nazis settled in South Africa after 1945 . . ."48
THE WEST GERMAN COMPANY OTRAG
Not surprising then, on March 26, 1976 Mobutu signed what the
British Broadcasting Company (BBC) reported was a "secret agreement"
with the West German company
OTRAG (Orbital Transport-und
Raketen-Aktiengesellschaft) to lease 260,000 square
kilometers—essentially the complete Kivu province—for
military/industrial purposes for the sum of DM 800,000,000
(approximately $250 million at that time).51-54
The contract "made OTRAG sovereign over
territories once inhabited by 760,000 people"54 in the Eastern and
South-central portion of Zaire. The leased property positioned North
of the Shaba militarized region, expanded Southeast along the Congo
River—the countries main waterway, and south of the Kinshasa
highway—better known as the "AIDS Highway" which runs through
Zaire's Northeast corridor and across central Africa bypassing the
"Isle of Plaques," Mount Elgon and Kitum Cave allegedly by the
author of The Hot Zone to be the breeding ground for the Ebola,
Marburg, and AIDS viruses.44
OTRAG was apparently authorized to conduct any "excavation and
construction; including air fields, energy plants, communication
systems, and manufacturing plants. All movement of people into and
within the OTRAG territory was only with permission of OTRAG, [which
was] absolved from any responsibility for damage caused by
construction. Its people enjoy complete immunity from the laws of
Zaire in the granted territory, until the year 2000."56
Believed to be of military intelligence gathering significance to
OTRAG and its principals were traced back to the
West German government and,
"to those Nazi scientists who worked on
VI and V2 rockets during World War II. For example, Dr. Kurt H.
Debus, Chairman of the Board of OTRAG, once worked at the Peenemude
V2 program and later, until 1975, worked as director of the Cape
Canaveral (now Cape Kennedy) space program.
Richard Gompertz, OTRAG's technical
director and a U.S. citizen, once was a specialist on V2 engines and
later presided over NASA's Chrysler space division. Lutz Thilo Kayer,
OTRAG's founder and manager, when young was quite close to the Nazi
rocket industry, often called 'Dadieu's young man,' a reference to
Armin Dadieu, his mentor, who served as prominent SS officer and as
Gorling's special representative for a research program on storing
While working for OTRAG Kayser also
acted as a contact for the West German government, a special advisor
to the Minister of Research and Technology on matters concerning
OTRAG. He was also on the ad hoc committee on... [America's]
In 1979, under pressure from the Soviet Union and Zaire's
neighboring countries, Mobutu announced OTRAG would "halt its rocket
testing" program. It was clear, however, strong diplomatic,
military, and economic ties between West Germany, the U.S. and Zaire
COLD WAR PROPAGANDA VERSUS THE HARD
According to the latest United States Army (USA) report, the
"outlandish claim" that the AIDS virus was developed as a biological
weapon for the Pentagon was communist propaganda
"disavowed in 1987
by then Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, who apologized to
President Ronald Reagan for the accusation."58
However, more recently, the high ranking
Soviet press official Boris Belitskiy, offered an alternative
account regarding the origin of such "propaganda".59
"Several U.S. Administration
officials such as USIA [CIA] Director Charles Wick, have
accused the Soviet Union of having invented this theory for propaganda
purposes. But actually it is not Soviet scientists at all who
first came up with this theory," Belitskiy reported.
first reported in Western journals by Western scientists, such
as Dr. John Seale, a specialist on venereal diseases at two big
"Just recently a Soviet journalist in Algeria, Aleksandr
Zhukov, man-aged to interview a European physician at the
Moustapha Hospital there, who made some relevant disclosures on
the subject. In the early seventies, this physician, an
immunologist, was working for the West German OTRAG Corporation
in Zaire. His laboratory had been given the assignment to
cultivate viruses ordinarily affecting animals but constituting
a potential danger to man.
They were particularly interested in
certain un-known viruses isolated from the African green monkey,
and capable of such rapid replication that they could completely
destabilize the immune system. These viruses, however, were
quite harmless for human beings and the lab's assignment was to
develop a mutant virus that would be a human killer."7-11,13-22
"Did they succeed?" the announcer asked.
"To a large extent, yes,"
Belitskiy replied. "The lab was ordered to wind up the
project and turn the results over to certain U.S.
researchers, who had been following this work with keen
interest, to such an extent that some of the researchers
believed they were in reality working not for the West
German OTRAG Corp-oration but for the Pentagon."59
Two years after Belitskiy's
announcement, in 1991, Dr. Jacobo Segal, professor emeritus
of Berlin's Humboldt University told the international press that
the Pentagon theory of AIDS made sense. He alleged the virus was
likely developed "through gene technology" as a result of Pentagon
sponsored animal research, "to permit the attack on human immune
cells." Furthermore, he reported this theory is "supported by many
European scientists and has not been refuted."60
In 1977, at the height of OTRAG's Zairian missile testing phase,
Litton Industries units received contracts worth: $5 million for
medical electron-ic equipment from its Hellige division, in
Freiburg, West Germany;61 $19.8 million worth of missile
fire-control equipment from the Army;62 $32.9 million for electronic
reconnaissance sensor equipment from the Air Force;63 and in 1978
$11.3 million worth of computerized communications systems for
NATO.64 Some of these military supplies may have been earmarked for
Moreover, given the "cooperation between NATO and the World Health
Organization with regard to the control and regulation of the
international exchange of pharmaceutical products, [and] the
possible necessity of facing the dangers created by the use of
chemical or bacteriological weapons"66 it appears
noteworthy that the outbreaks of the world's most feared and deadly
viruses Marburg, Ebola, Reston, and AIDS—share the dubious
distinction of breaking out in or around zones of U.S. and West
German, NATO-allied, military experimentation at the height of the
Increased political/military interest in Central Africa,
and a burgeoning of WHO and NCI contracts for the supply of simians
for "defensive" research.44
AIDS, GAYS, BLACKS AND THE CIA
It is also noteworthy that in 1975, five years following the signing
of the Geneva accord by Nixon, congressional records revealed that
the USPHS through the Special (i.e., covert) Operations Division of
the Army continued to supply biological weapons including deadly
neurotoxins and viruses to the CIA which illegally stored them in
their Fort Detrick facility for future unsanctioned uses.67
Though records of who initiated and
directed this covert activity were destroyed by the CIA, along with
the famous Watergate tapes,68 Mr. Nathan Gordon, Former Chief of the
CIA's Chemistry Branch, Technical Services Division confessed
knowledge that some of the stored substances were to be used to,
"study immunization methods for
diseases vis-a-vis—who knows, cancer."69
Furthermore, following Nixon's
resignation, President Ford and Henry Kissinger were made aware that
the CIA maintained a residual supply of biological weapons, but
neither ordered their destruction according to testimony pro-vided
by Former CIA Director Richard Helms.70
In subsequent congressional hearings before the Senate Subcommittee
on Health and Scientific Research, it was revealed that George W
Merck, "of the prominent Merck pharmaceutical firm," directed
America's bio-logical weapons manufacturing industry for decades
following World War II.71 Merck & Company, Inc. was also listed
among the DOD biological weapons contractors.72 Merck, Sharp and Dohme provided major financial support for the earliest hepatitis B
vaccination studies conducted simultaneously in Central Africa and
New York City during the early 1970s.
Several authorities have argued these
vaccine trials might best explain the unique and varying
epidemiological patterns of HIV/AIDS transmission between the U.S.
"The vaccine was prepared in the
laboratories of the Department of Virus and Cell Biology
Research, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point,
Pennsylvania. The placebo, [was] also prepared in the Merck
During the holocaust, Nazi scientists
assayed non-Arian blood to deter-mine race specific disease
susceptibilities. Blacks and homosexuals, along with Jews, were
persecuted by the Nazis. Over 10,000 gay men were murdered.3
Similarly, U.S. intelligence agencies have been targeting blacks and
gays for assassinations, harassment, illegal wire taps, and
counterintelligence campaigns from the McCarthy era in the 1950s
through the Reagan era in the 1980s. American black and gay civil
rights groups and their leaders were considered communist threats
during the cold war years— particularly during the late 1960s and
early 1970s when Nixon, Kissinger, and Hoover supported
funding for covert FBI and CIA activities aimed at neutralizing all
such domestic and foreign black and homosexual threats.74-78
The use of Third World people and American blacks and prisoners for
unconscionable pharmaceutical experimentation and covert economic,
social, and environmental exploitation by the U.S. and other western
countries has been repeatedly alleged by reputable sources.79
World Health Organization
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the control of biologicals. WHO Chronicle 1968;23;1:3-15.
World Health Organization
Report. Recent work on virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1974
Shilts R. And the Band Played
On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic. New York:
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Litton Industries, Inc., 360
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Staff reporter. Litton and Navy
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Staff reporter. Suit against
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Staff reporter. Suit against
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Staff reporter. Court lets stand
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Freemantle B. CIA. Briarcliff
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South African Digest, Pretoria.
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African Development, London.
South Africa: W. Germany may become number one trading
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Zaire Radio. Zaire: W. German
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West Africa, London. Zaire:
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British Broadcasting Company,
London. Zaire: Secret agreement with German rocket firm. In:
Africa Diary, October 8-10, 1977, p. 8700.
West Africa, London. Zaire: New
light on missile testing report. In: Africa Diary, June
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West Africa, London. Zaire: W.
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Staff writer. Germans go
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Hussain F. Volksraketen for the
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February 13, 1978; Deutcher Bundestag, 8th Session, 98th
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African Development, London.
Africa General: U.S. sends more intelligence personnel to
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Reference notes Mr. William H. Crosson, chief of two
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Pentagon was appointed in 1977 to be the Director of US
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Staff reporter. Litton
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Staff reporter. Litton Systems
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fire-control equipment. Wall Street Journal, Decem-ber 19,
1977, p. 21, Column 1.
Staff reporter. Litton Systems
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Staff reporter. Litton
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Brumter C. The North Atlantic
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Ibid., p. 139-140;195.
United States Senate.
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Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. Volume 1,
Unauthorized Storage of Toxic gents, September 16, 17, and
18,1975. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office,
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Ibid., pp. 22-23.
Ibid., p. 61
Ibid., p. 82;98.
Committee on Human Resources,
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