The Culture of Stones
Magic and Megaliths
We want to turn back now to the many sculptures of female Goddesses
found in the most ancient archaeological levels. According to the
experts, the discernible idea of the religion of the Goddess is that
of an infinite bounty of the Great Mother. It is proposed that such
peoples didn’t engage in agriculture because the idea of “owning
land” may have been abhorrent to them. The idea of “forcing” the
earth to yield, rather than accepting the natural abundance the
Goddess provided was simply not a part of their philosophy.
Goddess was a Star Being, and she was worshipped in outdoor Temples
that were laid out along Celestial Archetypes. But it may be that
“worshipping the Goddess” in the terms we understand worship was not
precisely what was going on in these temples. Why do I say this?
Well, because there was something else VERY mysterious about these
ancient peoples - they seem to have had “super powers”. In a
previous chapter, we looked at Dr. Robert Schoch’s work on the
underwater pyramids off Japan known as
the Yonaguni Monuments.
Schoch noted the odd fact that there were no “quarry marks” on the
stones of the underwater structure. From this, he concluded that
they couldn’t be manmade. But he ought to have considered other
great stone cities where there is often a similar lack of evidence
of our present quarrying technology.
Morris Jessup wrote extensively
about the megalithic structures in his book
The Case for the UFO,
concluding that, based on his own knowledge and experience, many of
them seemed to have been fitted by a process of “grinding in situ”.
This, of course, would necessitate a means of handling stone that is
completely outside the range of our present understanding.
makes a remarkable observation:
It may be that this tremendous power was limited in its application
to articles of stone texture only, but this is a little doubtful.
Or, perhaps it was limited to nonmagnetic materials in general. Such
a limitation would have sidetracked the development of a mechanized
culture such as ours of this day, and would partly account for the strange fact that almost all
relics of the profound past are nonmetallic.
It is a fact that the Earth is literally blanketed with megaliths
from some ancient civilization. Tens of thousands of them!
variations in placement and style, but the thing they all have in
common is their incredible size and their undeniable antiquity. Many
scholars attempt to place them within recorded history by digging
around them and shouting “aha!”, when they find something that can
be dated within the current scheme of human history. It is now
understood by the experts that the megalithic structures demanded
complex architectural planning, and they propose that it was the
labor of tens of thousands of men working for centuries.
No one has ever made a systematic count of the megaliths, but the
estimate goes beyond 50,000. It is also admitted that this figure
represents only a fraction, since many have been destroyed not only
by the forces of nature, but also by the wanton destruction of man.
Even though there are megalithic monuments in locations around the
world, there is nothing anywhere else like there is in Europe. The
megaliths of Europe form an “enormous blanket of stone”. Great
mounds of green turf or gleaming white quartz pebbles formerly
covered many of them. The quartz is, of course, electrically active.
The megalithic mania of ancient Europe is:
Unparalleled indeed in human history. For there has never been
anything like this rage, almost mania, for megalith building, except
perhaps during the centuries after AD 1000 when much the same part
of Europe was covered with what a monk of the time called a ‘white
mantle of churches.’ […]
The megaliths, then, were raised by some of the earliest Europeans.
The reason that this simple fact took so long to be accepted was the
peculiar inferiority complex which western Europeans had about their
past. Their religion, their laws, their cultural heritage, their
very numerals, all come from the East.
The inhabitants, before civilization came flooding in from the Mediterranean, were
illiterate; they kept no records, they built no cities. It was easy
to assume that they were simply bands of howling half-naked savages
who painted their bodies, put bear-grease on their hair and ate
168 Jessup, Morris K.,
The Case For The UFO (New York: Bantam Books 1955) p. 148.
Reader’s Digest, The World’s Last Mysteries, 1977.
The whys and wherefores of this “megalith mania”
are still under debate. The fact is: you can’t date stones. Yes, you
can date things found around them, or near them, or under them, but
you can’t date the stones.
The interesting thing about the megalith builders is that the
peoples who were able to perform these utterly amazing feats of
engineering are still, in most circles, considered to be barbarians
because they did not build cities, engage in agriculture, develop the wheel,
or writing. Yet, they did something that clearly cannot be, and was
not, done by “civilized” peoples who did all of those “civilized”
things. They had some sort of “power” that we cannot replicate and
do not understand.
I would like to speculate here for a moment. The first thing that
comes to my mind when I consider the problem of the megaliths is
that of what I call “payoff”. That is to say, nobody who is human
ever does anything without a “payoff”, or to put it more generally,
for a reason, Colin Renfrew and his “Big Chief Theory”
notwithstanding.170 What could be the reason for the stones?
170 We discussed briefly Renfrew’s theory in the last chapter.
were clearly a great deal more of them than would be necessary for
simple “monumental” or “worship” purposes, or even time keeping, as
recent researchers have suggested. They appear to be arranged like
the inner workings of some vast global machine whose purpose is an
enigma to us. For example, at Carnac in Brittany, 3,000 menhirs
formed thirteen parallel lines, sprawled across four miles of the
At the same time, could the overabundant presence of these
megaliths, their “machine-like” arrangement, have anything to do
with the things that are observed to be “lacking” in these peoples,
i.e. the signs of civilization: the wheel, agriculture, writing and
cities? Might we suppose the reason for the stones and the reason
for the absence of evidence of what we, today, call civilization,
And since they are found in all the same areas as
megaliths exist, might we also suppose that very corpulent women
represented in the thousands of carvings had some relationship to
these mystical powers as well? I am just observing what is evident
based on long periods of contemplating these structures and
artifacts. If we sit down before them without any preconceived
notions and try to imagine ourselves participating in the life of
the people for whom they were a natural and necessary part of the
landscape, and put that together with what we know about our own
civilization, we come to some very startling ideas.
It is a matter of observation that cities developed in agricultural
societies as a central place to manufacture and exchange goods.
Agriculture is required to feed stable and static populations.
Wheels are needed to both transport people and goods in cities and
from agricultural zones to cities and back. Writing is needed to
keep records of transactions, as is demonstrated by the clear
evidence of the earliest forms of writing: endless lists and tallies
of grain and cattle. And, writing was used for another reason: to
record and promulgate the exploits of certain Gods and Goddesses as
well as keeping track of all the goods tithed to the temple and
So, suppose none of this was needed? Suppose a civilization existed
that did not need cities, agriculture, wheels or writing? That is
not to say that they did not produce goods en masse, nor that they
did not produce food for large groups, or that they did not travel
over vast distances or record their exploits.
But, suppose they did
not do it in the way we would expect? Suppose the STONES DID IT ALL?
What do I mean?
It may very well be that the “worship” of the ancients was not
worship in the terms we understand it; it was a technology based on
cosmic energy, having something to do with the stars as markers of
periods of time in which cosmic rays could be collected, and
utilizing stones in interaction with the human body, possibly very
large women, to produce whatever the tribe needed.
For those of you
who are science fiction fans, simply think of a modified function of
The Navigator in the book and movie Dune. It ought not to be lost on
the reader that one of the titles of the Goddess Isis, as well as
other divine beings, is “The Navigator”. Another point about the
Goddess image of Isis is the odd construction on her head that is
called the “throne”. The term “seated” is regularly used in
conjunction with Goddess images, and in archaic times, kingship was
bestowed by marriage to the representative of the Goddess.
Worship of the moon is recorded in the oldest literatures of Egypt,
Babylonia, India, and China - and is still practiced today in various
parts of the world, particularly among certain African and Native
American groups. The experts will tell us that Moon worship is
founded on the belief that the phases of the moon and the growth and
decline of plant, animal, and human life are related. In some
societies food was laid out at night to absorb the rays of the moon,
which were thought to have power to cure disease and prolong life.
Among the Baganda of central Africa it was customary for a mother to
bathe her newborn child by the light of the first full moon. The
moon has also been associated with wisdom and justice, as in the
worship of the Egyptian God Thoth and the Mesopotamian God Sin. The
moon has also been the basis for many amorous legends and some
superstitions (madmen were once considered to be moonstruck, hence
the term lunatic). This is just the short version because entire
libraries could be filled with books on the mythology of the Moon
and related subjects.
The interesting points are that the rays of the moon were anciently
thought to have the power to cure disease and prolong life and
confer wisdom. These are motifs of both the Holy Grail and the
And this brings us to another most interesting
idea of Morris Jessup.
Morris Jessup and Gravitational Nodes
The reader familiar with Jessup’s work will know that he died under
very mysterious circumstances, and his death was the platform upon
which the “legend” of the “Philadelphia Experiment“ was founded.
This story is about Secret Government experiments in radar
invisibility that resulted in
Time Travel/manipulation. It is too
much to go into here and now, and not totally relevant to our
subject, but we will say that, after much research and tracking of
clues, we have concluded that Jessup was most likely murdered - but
that it wasn’t for the reasons
that most people think.
We believe that he was killed to give
“substance” to the diversionary story of the Philadelphia
Experiment, which is, in our opinion, designed to promulgate
disinformation AND distract attention away from certain observations
that he made in his book, cited above.
Jessup points out that UFOs have been sighted and recorded by human
beings for thousands of years, and he cites these reports in detail.
He informs us that some of the oldest and richest sources of such
reports are records of Indian and Tibetan monasteries. He notes that
records suggesting sightings 15,000 to 70,000 years ago are to be
found there, and these, as well as a report from the court records
of Thutmose III that has been, dated to approximately 1500 BC, are
quite similar to the reports of the present day.
Jessup then moves to the many sightings made by skeptical
astronomers, of which I have a collection myself. Their observations
are quantitative and documented as to time and conditions of
The astronomers, though unable to explain what they
were seeing, nevertheless faithfully recorded all details utilizing
whatever equipment was available to them at the various periods when
the observations were made. Simultaneous observations by two or more
observers have at times established the approximate distances of the
UFOs through the study of parallax calculations.171 It was these
observations, with certain specific data included, that provided the
details upon which Jessup formulated his idea.
171 “Parallax” is the displacement, often measurable, caused by
looking at an object from two different points; e.g. hold up a
finger and view it with first one eye and then the other. The
displacement against a distinct background is parallax.
He called it the
“habitat of the UFOs”.
Refinements of Bode’s law indicate nodes in the gravitational field,
at which planets, asteroids, and possibly comets and meteors tend to
locate themselves. An extension of the theory to the satellite
systems of the major planets indicates a similar system of nodes on
smaller scales, where planets, rather than the sun, are
gravitational centers. …it might well be that these gravitational
nodes are occupied to some degree by navigable constructions.[…]
We can, therefore, take it as highly probable that there are many
zones of convenience around the planets, as well as around the sun,
which are presently unoccupied by planets or satellites of any
considerable size and which may well be used by enlightened space
dwellers. Such zones, if they exist, are in addition to the
demonstrable earth-sun-moon neutral.
Since this system of nodes appears to be some function of the radius
of the attracting body, it may be that there is a complete series of
them in concentric circles starting at the surface of a parent body
such as the earth, but their existence or true nature can hardly be
known to us until we can in some way determine the nature of gravity
itself. There may even be hints available to us regarding gravity.
For instance, no final settlement has ever been made of the argument
over the opposed wave and corpuscular
theories of the propagation of light. An assumption that the ether,
a necessary adjunct to the wave theory, is identical with the
gravitational field, whatever that may be, would reconcile the
opposing theories and a quantum of light would then be merely a
pulsation or fluctuation in the gravitational field. Intense studies
of the movements of space-navigable UFOs might furnish vital clues
to such problems.[…]
There is increasingly strong evidence that gravity is neither so
continuous, so immaterial nor so obscure as to be completely
unamenable to use, manipulation and control. […] The lifting of the
ancient megalithic structures, too, must surely have come through
It is my belief that something of the sort was done in the
antediluvian past, through either research or through some
fortuitous discovery of physical forces and laws, which have not as
yet been revealed to scientists of this second wave of
The Case for the UFO, (New York: Bantum Books 1955) pp.
Jessup next goes on to discuss the periodicity of
events of celestial and spatial origin. As he stated, it is not
particularly astonishing that such phenomena should be cyclic, for
nearly everything astronomical IS periodic.
There are several important things in the comments of Jessup that
are pertinent to our discussion here. Not only is he drawing very
close to describing a paraphysical, hyperdimensional state of
existence which utilizes gravitational technology, he is also
pointing out a certain “periodicity” to the activities of same in
relationship to what might be considered points in time when
“dimensional doorways” open and close naturally. This is the
fundamental concept behind his idea of gravitational nodes in a
three-body system, the Earth, Moon and Sun.
Jessup came to these
ideas by researching UFOs and other anomalous phenomena, and it is
very interesting to speculate as to how this might connect to the
ideas of Gurdjieff when he says we are “food for the Moon”. In the
latter case, Gurdjieff was repeating an ancient idea that may have
been related to the concept of hyperdimensional beings using
gravitational nodes as “portals” between dimensions.
Another important point about Jessup’s comments is his connection
between scientific observations and clues in ancient myths to the
fact that the megalith builders had extraordinary abilities. In
short, what could it mean to be “enthroned” in terms of the Goddess?
How could this be a source of health, extended life, knowledge and
Where on earth did such ideas come from?
The Dance of the Hours
The Book of Hours of Jean de France, Duc de Berry, is considered to
be one of the most magnificent of late medieval manuscripts that
have survived into our time. A “Book of Hours” is a prayer book
based on the religious calendar of saints and festivals throughout
the year. The book commissioned by the Duke, undertaken by the
brothers Limbourg, consists of twelve folios; one for each month.
According to a lengthy analysis of these folios by Prof. Otto Neugebauer, this calendar encodes the traditions of ancient
astronomy and mathematics from deepest antiquity.
At the conclusion
of a fascinating analysis, demonstrating the method of decoding the
Book of Hours, Otto Neugebauer writes:
The scheme ends where it began, with January 19, if we make the two
last lunations 29 days long. This final exception to the rule of
alternation was called sallus lunae, the “mump of the moon.” In
order to know which date is supposed to be a new moon, one need only
know which number the present year has in the 19-year cycle. This
number is called the “golden number” because, as a scholar of the
13th century expressed it, “this number excels all other lunar
rations as gold excels all other metals.”173
173 Neugebauer, Otto, The Exact Sciences in Antiquity,
(New York: Dover 1969).
The 19-year cycle is
called a “Metonic Cycle”. It refers to the observational fact that
19 years (6939.689 days) is almost exactly the same length as 235
lunar months (6939.602 days) and that a 19-year cycle consisting of
12 years that were 12-lunar-months-long and 7 years that were
13-lunar-months-long would keep the lunar months in step with the
seasons. In other words, the phases of the Moon start to reoccur,
within about 2 hours, on the same days of the same months of the
Meton tried to sell the scheme to the Athenians, who weren’t
interested, it seems, and nevertheless they named the idea the
“Metonic Cycle”. This 19-year cycle is closely related to the 18.6
year precession of the moon’s orbit about the earth which causes a
corresponding wobble (nutation) on the earth’s motion. This suggests
that the megalith builders KNEW about the planetary wobble! In fact,
the 18.6 year cycle seems to be a key concern of the megalith
builders: it is also an observational fact that every 18.6 years,
the moon reaches a major standstill point, which means that every
18.6 years, the rising or setting Moon reaches a northern extreme in
rising and setting azimuth at summer solstice, and a southern
extreme at winter solstice.
In 1897 at Coligny in Burgundy, fragments of a bronze tablet were
Reassembled, this tablet is the longest known document in the Gallic
language. Dating to around the 1st century BC, it contains forty
different words written in Latin script, and it was a calendar.
After it was deciphered, it became clear that the Celts worked in
units of sixty-two lunar months, from one new moon to the next.
of these months would contain thirty days, the next twenty-nine,
which gave half-months of fifteen days, or one fifteen-day period followed by a
fourteen-day period. The days were counted from moon-rise to
moon-rise. The year that emerged from all this was eleven days
shorter than the 365-day solar year. They corrected this problem,
however, by the simple expedient of alternating 12-month years with
13-month years, - 3 of the former and 2 of the latter in a complete
cycle of 62 months.
Obviously, this was a rather ingenious solution to the problem but
it begs the question: it’s obvious that they had the mathematical
skills to calculate the solar year rather accurately, so why didn’t
they use it as their calendar? Why were they not linking the passage
of time to the Sun, the agricultural cycles? Why were they so
obviously concerned with what the Moon was doing and having a
precise way of keeping track of it? Why did they count their days
from moon-rise to moonrise? We note that this is a custom still
reflected in the practices of the Jews and Moslems, who count a day
as beginning when the Sun sets as a consequence of their
interactions with the Indo-Europeans.
Well, of course the experts tell us it was because they “worshipped”
the Moon. It was close and big and awesome to behold, so they
naturally just created a whole slew of ignorant beliefs about it,
and it became their “Goddess”, or God, as the case may be. As I have
already noted, by observing children, we may come to a better idea
of how it would be unlikely for the ancients (assuming they were
howling savages) to have come up with such ideas without some basis,
without some “story” having been told to them. Children accept the
natural world around them as it is until someone tells them a story.
And even then, you have to work hard to convince them that the story
is true because if you say that the moon is made of green cheese,
the child will think you have gone nuts.
However, if we connect Jessup’s idea of a gravitational node that
lies somewhere between the earth and the moon, in a specific and
cyclic relationship, to the strange marking of time by the ancients
according to where the moon was, as well as the later “moon worship”
as the transmission of an archaic knowledge of some secret source of
power, then we come to the idea that the ancient technology was
something quite extraordinary.
What seems to be evident is that the megalith builders were
concerned enough with the “three body system” - that relates to the
nutation of the Earth to the relative positions of the
earth-moon-sun - that they based their calendrical system on this
factor! This very well may suggest that they USED gravity.
to emphasize that curious comment of a thirteenth century scholar
quoted by Neugebauer who said, regarding the 19 year cycle:
number excels all other lunar rations as gold excels all other
If we then connect that remark to the quests of the
alchemist to “transmute base metals into gold” via the
“philosopher’s stone”, and the alchemical adage, “the right person,
in the right place, at the
right time, doing the right thing, can accomplish the work”, we
begin to realize that we are moving in the correct direction.
particularly when we recall that curious story about Fulcanelli and
Certain geometrical arrangements of highly purified materials are
enough to release atomic forces without having recourse to either
electricity or vacuum techniques.174
174 Pauwels, L, and Bergier, J.,
The Morning of the
Magicians, (New York: Stein and Day. 1964) p. 77.
This will become even more
significant further on.
Are there any clues about stones themselves being part of an ancient
technology? At present, there are many people who claim that the
megaliths are arranged around the world on a grid, the structure of
which is, according to them, 36 degrees of longitude apart.
assumption is that all of the megaliths belong to a single,
pre-flood civilization. The assumption being made from this
hypothesis is that the strange locations of these complexes implies
that the purpose of the megaliths was not to derive power from a
grid for local use, but rather, to do something to the earth grid by
coordinating local actions on a global basis. In other words, the
claim is that the megaliths appear to have been used to put energy
into a global grid rather than to extract energy from it.
There are problems with this blanket assumption. First of all, while
we do not think that the present scientific dating is reliable, we
do think that some ball-park figures can be established if enough
care is taken in observing individual situations and taking all the
evidence into account. The undersea structures off Japan, Bimini,
and Malta, as well as Tiahuanaco in South America, all suggest a
civilization that belonged to a pre-cataclysmic environment.
many other megalithic structures clearly belong to an “eruption” of
civilization in a postcataclysmic environment, including the
pyramids in Egypt, Central America, Stonehenge, and so on. What is
striking is the difference between the pyramidal groups and the
“circle making” groups, though many current researchers are trying
to connect them to the same basic philosophical context. I think
that may be a mistake.
It has been proposed by the advocates of so-called
that the placing of the megaliths was a function of “Grid
Engineering”, and that this is mankind’s oldest science. Such people
further claim that precise geometrical spherical versions of the
cube, such as the tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron,
dodecahedron, and other compound and semi-regular solids, such as
the cuboctahedron, are now recognized as evidence of Neolithic man’s
familiarity with the concepts of this putative sacred geometry.
These folks then go on to propose that this was a “mystical” sort of
practice that includes visualizing the earth’s energy grid in
certain ritualistic ways that will bring the individual in “tune”
with the superior intelligence of the Earth by producing
I have to wonder about this interpretation. If, as we suspect, we
have been under an “Hyperdimensional Raj”175 for these many
thousands of years, we might think that much of this material is
designed to do one of two things:
1) to inform us about the “control
2) to perpetuate it
What would be more natural than for
the Matrix Control system to manipulate people to think that
“visualizing” these grids will bring them into “harmony” with the
earth and that this is a “good thing”?
175 Thanks to C. Scott Littleton for
this handy term.
It may be, in fact, that it
is designed to strengthen the prison and to make human beings into
the “batteries” that keep it in place! However, that does not mean
that discovering these things and knowing where these points are is
not a useful exercise. But, to take this very scientific knowledge,
ignore its possible correct applications, and fall into the trap of
doing what amounts to “rituals” of visualization so as to bring
oneself into “harmony” with the earth may be exactly what “they”
want us to do.
The very fact that it is being so widely promulgated
in this way suggests to me that this is the case.
Possible Antagonistic Polarities in Ancient Civilizations
When one tracks back through all of the ancient “matters” and
studies the different groups, trying to follow them as they moved
from place to place, studying the genetic morphology in order to
keep track of who is who, and comparing linguistics and myth and
archaeology, one comes to the startling realization that there were
significant polarities throughout space and time.
I have tentatively
identified these polarities as the Circle People and the Triangle -
or Pyramid - People. In a general sense, one can see the broad brush
of the triangle people in the Southern hemisphere, in the pyramids
and related cultures and artifacts.
For the most part, their art is
primitive and stylistically rigid. In the northern hemisphere, one
sees the circle makers, the spirals, the rough megaliths, the art of Lascaux and Chauvet and the many other caves. One can note a clear
difference between the perceptions and the response to the
environment between the two trends and groups. Of course, there are
areas where there was obvious mixture of both cultures and styles,
and ideological constructions, but overall, there is a very distinct
There are many books on “alternative science” being published in the
present time about the purported ancient civilizations. One
assumption that they all seem to hold in common is that everything
was all hunky dory, sweetness and light among all the people, and
the only thing that happened was that a nasty cataclysm came along
and brought it all to an end.
They keep forgetting the issue of the
Vedas and Plato’s Timaeus where an ancient war was described, and it
was at that point in time, or immediately after, that the cosmic
catastrophe occurred. It would then be only reasonable to
suspect that the same differences between the warring parties would
be carried over into the post cataclysmic world.
And it seems to be
a reasonable assumption that the “southern influence”, including
Egypt, was that of the “Atlanteans” of Plato, and that the “northern
influence”, including the builders of Stonehenge, were the
“Athenians” of Plato, the “Sons of Boreas”, or the North Wind,
keeping in mind that these “Athenians” were obviously not from
Athens as we know it today, though we are beginning to suspect that
we know who they were.
We should also like to note that the so-called “civilizing
influence” of the South, of the creators of agricultural
civilizations, the instigation of writing and the wheel and so
forth, is always connected in some way to “scaly” critters like Fish Gods or
It isn’t until fairly late that the Serpent makes
his appearance among the archaeological finds of Europe and central
Asia. Before the serpent appeared there, there were only Goddesses,
birds, and wavy lines representing water and cosmic energy. I think
that it is dangerous to confuse the issues.
Again and again we see
currents of two completely different processes, two factions, two
ways of perceiving and interacting with the cosmos: one that wishes
to conceal and one that wishes to reveal, one that wishes to
dominate, one that wishes to share.
We notice that many megalithic sites are located a certain points
with a certain geometry. But, if we look even closer, if we discard
the current so-called
“Sacred Geometry” and just look at the sites themselves and let them
speak - all of them - instead of leaving this one or that one out because
it doesn’t quite fit, or only is “very close” to fitting, we may
discover another relationship that is suggested by the sites, rather
than working to fit the sites into an assumption.
So many bizarre
ideas are being propagated at the present time, including the
preposterous one about the megaliths being set up to absorb the
energy of human sacrifices, and that the stones “drink blood...” that
it is quite discouraging to realize how easily people are misled by
nonsense. If such writers cannot figure out that the megaliths were
demonized by the church because they were revered by the nature
religions, which we theorize are carriers of ancient scientific
knowledge, and the nature religions themselves were also demonized,
then there isn’t much chance that they will figure anything else out
Such people also tend to be convinced that
the Holy Grail is
the cup from the Last Supper, too, and I won’t even comment on that.
Stone Technology and T.C. Lethbridge
Getting back to our stones, and whether or not we can find even a
hint that they were involved in some kind of technology, we note
first of all that archaeologist T.C. Lethbridge once placed his hand
on one of the stones and received a strong tingling sensation like
an electric shock, and the huge, heavy stone felt as if it were
rocking wildly. Many other people have received sensations of shock
when placing their hands on certain stones, and photographs have
occasionally shown inexplicable light radiations emanating from
Upon examination, we find that many of the megaliths were
engraved with “cup and ring” marks - concentric rings and channels.
The first impression these designs give is that of a circuit board
of a computer.
In Greek myth, the walls of Thebes were said to have been
constructed by the skill of a musician called Amphion and his lyre.
He played the lyre in such a way that stones were made to move.
Phoenician myth speaks of the God Ouranus moving stones as if they
had life of their own. This is one of numerous traditions from
around the world that sound in various forms was used to levitate
and move large stones.
Stones may have another interesting property that deserves serious
research. In 1982, Tafter, the landlord at the Prince of Wales Inn
at Kenfig in Mid-Glamorgan, Wales, complained of the sound of organ
music and voices keeping him awake at night. To investigate, John Marke, an electrical engineer, and
Allan Jenkins, an industrial
chemist, connected electrodes to the wall of the pub after closing
time one night. They fed 20,000 volts across the electrodes and
locked tape recorders in the room for four hours.
When the tapes
were analyzed, they had succeeded in taping voices speaking in old
Welsh, organ music, and a ticking clock. Interestingly, there was no
clock in the room at the time. It has been suggested that the stones
in the wall contained substances similar to those found in modern
This last remark about “recordings” in stone brings us to another
interesting item. Tom C. Lethbridge, the above mentioned
archeologist (who became Director of Excavations for the Cambridge
Antiquarian Society and Director of the University Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnology), wrote a number of excellent books that
form a collection that has been called one of the most fascinating
records of paranormal research ever compiled. In recent years,
Lethbridge is finally beginning to be fully appreciated.
the skills of a scientist with a completely open mind, he conducted
a series of experiments that convinced him of the existence of hyperdimensional realms
that interact dynamically with our own.
Colin Wilson called him a man whose gifts were far ahead of his time
and credited him with one of the most remarkable and original minds
in parapsychology. We agree most heartily and highly recommend his
work to the reader. Over the past ten years or more, Lethbridge’s
work has served us as a platform for many fruitful speculations and
experiments about hyperdimensional realities.
Tom Lethbridge, the Cambridge don, took no interest in psychical
research until after he had retired. But dowsing fascinated him.
the early 1930’s, he and another archaeologist were looking for
Viking graves on the Isle of Lundy in the Bristol Channel. After
finding what they came for, they were just killing time while
waiting for a ferry and decided to try some experiments with
dowsing, which had been an interest of Lethbridge for some time.
Lundy Island is crisscrossed with seams of volcanic rock that
extrude through the slate, and Lethbridge wanted to see if dowsing
would locate them. So, he had his friend blindfold him and lead him
about with a forked hazel stick. Every time he passed over a
volcanic seam, the hazel fork twisted violently in his hands. The
friend was carrying a very sensitive magnetometer and was able to
immediately verify that Lethbridge had accurately located the
volcanic seams of rock.
Lethbridge realized that, like running water, volcanic rock has a
faint magnetic field. He had written about dowsing earlier,
people can dowse, if they know how to do it. If they cannot do it,
there is probably some fault in the electrical system of their
This remark makes us wonder if there are not people who have
extremely powerful and well-developed electrical systems in their
bodies, and if such conditions might not be a genetic inheritance?
This question will come up again further on, so keep it in mind.
Lethbridge’s success with finding volcanic rock started him off on
investigations into other realms. Hidden objects could not stay
Lethbridge was wandering around with his rods, twigs or pendulum.
seem to be any limits to what could be detected this way. He had
proved to his
complete satisfaction not only that dowsing worked, but that it was
- the rod or pendulum was connected to the mind of the person
holding it in some way.
Tom Lethbridge’s results proved to be not only accurate but also
repeatable, and he found the responses appeared to be governed by
vibrations of various wavelengths. The wavelength of water, for
instance, was different to that of metal. His principal instrument
became the pendulum, and he found a lot depended on the length of
the pendulum’s cord.
He was able to test not only for minerals but
abstract things and qualities like anger, death, deceit, sleep,
colors, male, and female. In a lengthy series of trial and error
experiments, he created a table of very precise measurements
showing, for example, that a 22-inch length would reveal the
existence of silver or lead, while iron demanded a 32-inch stretch,
but sulphur a mere 7 inches.
Stranger still, though, the pendulum
would react to different emotions and attributes, with a different
length for feminine (29”) and masculine (24”) objects, including
human or animal remains. The details of his experiments are utterly
fascinating. This open-minded and extremely literate man was aware
that many people would regard his methods and findings with
He once wrote:
“It is impossible for it to be imaginary. If you can use a pendulum
to work out within an inch or two exactly where something lies
hidden beneath undisturbed turf, and do this in front of witnesses,
and then go to the spot which the pendulum has indicated and take
off the turf, dig up the soil beneath and find the object. If you
can do this same operation again and again and almost always
succeed, this cannot be imagination, delusion, or any of those
things. It is scientific experiment, however crude it may be.”
Perhaps the reason why some still cannot accept dowsing is because
it is so incredibly simple. At no cost at all you can produce an
instrument no piece of expensive machinery can equal. But again,
Lethbridge points out that everything depends on the operator.
Lethbridge found himself confronted with a very strange world - “far
stranger I feel than anything produced by physics, botany or
biology” - and he wrote of millions of cones of force surrounding
each of us in our homes and backyards which can be contacted
instantly by something in our own “energy field”. It was much more
difficult to comprehend than molecules, atoms and electrons, he
said, because we had been brought up to take these for granted.
As we have already noted, if the infrastructure of our civilization
were to be destroyed, then if a person a hundred years later tried
to explain the theory of radio and television, people would find it
impossible to comprehend. It would sound like magic.
Where does the power to work a pendulum come from? Lethbridge
thought that it might be something invisible and intangible, a part
of us, which knows far more than we do. Is it mind or soul? Some
sort of electromagnetic or psyche field? Something linked to a
higher dimension? He agonized over this and admitted he wasn’t wise
enough to come to any definite conclusion, apart from the thought
that ancient man knew far more about it than we do today.
Although, Lethbridge did a huge amount of experimental work in the
field of dowsing, and his results deserve attention from any serious
student of the deeper realities of our world, what we are interested
in here is his work in another, though related, direction.
In 1957, Lethbridge left Cambridge in disgust at the narrow-minded
attitudes of the scholars there. He moved into Hole House, an old
Tudor mansion on the south coast of Devon. Next door to him lived a
little old white-haired lady who assured Lethbridge that she could
put spells on people who annoyed her and that she was able to travel
out of her body at night and wander around the district. She
explained that if she wanted to discourage unwanted visitors, she
had only to visualize a five-pointed star in the path of the
individual and they would stay away. Lethbridge, of course, was
But, being an experimenter, Lethbridge was trying the visualization
one evening while lying in bed. That night, his wife awakened with
the feeling that somebody else was in the room. She could see a
faint glow of light at the foot of the bed, which slowly faded. The
next day the old lady came to see them and told them that she had
come to “visit” them the previous night and had found the bed
surrounded by triangles of fire.
Leaving aside whether or not we can prove this story to be anything
more than a subjective experience, there are two important points we
would like to make. The first one is that somehow, this practice of
“visualizing pentagrams” seems to have a causal relationship to the
appearance of the old woman in Lethbridge’s bedroom. It was almost
as though the practice “attracted” the visitor, possibly even
inspiring the wish or compulsion to visit. The second is that the
visualized pentagrams appeared as triangles of fire.
Theories of how hyperdimensional objects might appear in fourth dimensional
space-time, or how four dimensional objects might appear in three
dimensional space time, in mathematical terms, lends a modicum of
credibility to this story. If the old woman had seen fiery
pentagrams, we would not take such notice of the event.
pentagon in our world might appear as a triangle in another realm
suggests something very mysterious here. I am also intrigued by the
possible relationship to the differences of these hyperdimensional
solids and the difference between the perspectives of the “triangle
people” and the “circle people”. This is also a very important point
related to the dangers of visualizing geometric shapes when we
consider the subsequent events that Lethbridge recounted.
Several years later, the old lady told Lethbridge that she was going
to put a spell on the cattle of a farmer with whom she was
quarreling. At this point, Lethbridge took her seriously and warned
her about the dangers of practicing magic. She ignored him, and one
day not long after declaring her intentions, she was found dead in
her bed under mysterious circumstances. As it happened, the cattle
of two other nearby farmers did get hoof and mouth disease, but the
cattle of the farmer with whom
the old lady was quarreling were unaffected. Lethbridge was
convinced that the “spell” had rebounded on the old lady in some
way. But, it was this event that led to an important insight for us
here, which is why we have recounted the story.
Sometime after the old woman’s death, Lethbridge was passing her
cottage and suddenly experienced a “nasty feeling”, a “suffocating
sense of depression”. His curiosity aroused, Lethbridge walked
around the cottage and discovered a most interesting thing: he could
step into and out of the “depression” just as if it were some kind
of invisibly defined “locus”.
This reminded Lethbridge of a similar experience he had had when
walking with his mother as a teenager. It was in the Great Wood near
Wokingham, on a nice morning, when suddenly the two of them
“horrible feeling of gloom and depression, which crept
upon us like a blanket of fog over the surface of the sea”.
left in a hurry and only later discovered that the corpse of a
suicide had been discovered lying just a few yards from where they
had been standing. Some years later, Lethbridge and his wife went to
the seashore to collect seaweed for their garden. As he walked on
the beach, he again experienced the sense of depression, gloom and
fear descending on him. Resisting this influence, Lethbridge and his
wife began to fill their sacks with seaweed.
After a very short
period of this activity, Lethbridge’s wife, Mina, came running up to
him demanding that they leave saying,
“I can’t stand this place a
minute longer. There’s something frightful here”.
In a discussion about the phenomenon with Mina’s brother the
following day, the brother mentioned that he had experienced
something very similar in a field near Avebury, in Wiltshire.
he said the word “field”, it clicked in Lethbridge’s mind and he
remembered that field telephones often short circuit in warm, muggy
“What was the weather like?”, he asked.
“Warm and damp”, replied the brother.
Right there, the idea began to shape itself in Lethbridge’s mind.
On the day he had been in the Great Wood, it had been warm
and damp. When they had been at the beach gathering seaweed, it had
likewise been warm and damp. Experiment was obviously in order!
The next weekend, Lethbridge and his wife again visited the bay.
Again, as they stepped onto the beach, the same bank of depression
and gloom enveloped them. Mina led him to the spot where she had
experienced such an overwhelming sensation that she had insisted on
leaving the place. At that spot, the sensation was so powerful that
they actually felt dizzy. Lethbridge described it as being similar
to having a high fever and full of drugs. As it happened, on either
side of this spot were two streams of water.
Mina went off to the cliff to look at the scenery and suddenly
walked into the “depression” again. She actually had the sensation
that something or someone was urging her to jump off the cliff! When
she had brought it to the attention of Lethbridge, he agreed that
this spot was as “sinister” as the spot on the beach between the
As it turned out, nine years later, a man did commit suicide from
that exact spot. Lethbridge wondered if there was some sort of
“timeless” sensation that had been “imprinted” on the area via some
sort of “recording” principle. It seemed that, whether from the past or the future, feelings
of despair were somehow recorded on the surroundings, in the very
atmosphere, it seemed.
The only question was, how? Lethbridge
believed that the key was water.
A hint of what may be happening here is provided by the work of Y.
Rocard of the Sorbonne, who had discovered that underground water
produces changes in the earth’s magnetic field, and this was
proposed as the solution as to why dowsing works. The water does
this because it has a field of its own which interacts with the
And most significantly to us here is that magnetic
fields are the means by which sound is recorded on tape covered with
iron oxide. This suggested to Lethbridge that the magnetic field
produced by running water could record strong emotions that, as
Lethbridge also noted, produce electrical activity in the human
physiology. Such fields could be “played back” continuously, and
amplified in damp and muggy weather.
This would explain why these “areas of depression” seem to form
invisible walls. If you bring a magnet closer and closer to an iron
object, you notice that at a certain point, the object is “seized”
by the magnet as it enters the force field. Lethbridge’s experiments
took a new turn at this point, and led to evidence that many things
that are perceived as “hauntings” or “ghosts” are really just
At some point he thought about the fact that ghosts
are often reported to reappear on certain “anniversaries” which
suggests that there are other cyclical currents that turn such
recordings on or off or simply amplify them. To answer the question
that is growing in the reader’s mind, yes, it seems that some hauntings are the result of happy emotions, and strong happiness can
also be recorded in the same way. It also seems that the type of
material substance that the human “field” interacts with has an
important role. For example, in the 1840s, a certain Bishop Polk
told a Joseph Rhodes Buchanan that he could detect brass in the
dark. He said that when he touched it, a distinctly unpleasant taste
was produced in his mouth.
Buchanan tested him and discovered that
it was true, even if the metal was carefully and thickly wrapped in
paper. Buchanan experimented with his students and found that some
of them had a similar ability. In fact, it seemed that there were
quite a number of substances that could be detected this way, and
the only explanation that seemed reasonable was that the nerves of
the human being produce some sort of field - he called it the nerve
aura - which interacts with a similar “field” of the object.
Buchanan and others called the ability to “read” these fields
“psychometry”, and it is popularly practiced today.
What many people
do not realize is that the principle of psychometry, that many take
for granted - they can “feel the vibrations” - led Tom Lethbridge to
some startling revelations.
As noted, Tom Lethbridge had concluded after a lot of experiments
that a dowsing pendulum could somehow respond to different
substances, and that lengthening or shortening the string was like
tuning the pendulum to a particular wavelength. Lethbridge spent
days testing all kinds of different substances. He discovered that
the wavelength for silver is the same as lead: 22 inches. Truffles
and beech wood both respond at 17 inches. This meant that there must
be something further about such “paired” items to distinguish them.
After some testing, Lethbridge discovered that it was not just the
length of the string, but the number and direction of revolutions.
For lead, the pendulum would gyrate 16 times and for silver it would gyrate 22 times. It was
beginning to look like nature had a truly marvelous and foolproof
code for identifying anything. It is also beginning to appear to us
that the ancients knew this and that they may have attempted to
transmit this knowledge to us via myth and legend and the “Green
Language”. (That magical mumbo jumbo might not be the solution to
the mysteries is also becoming more and more apparent, but, let us
continue into even more remarkable speculations of Tom Lethbridge.)
Through a variety of experiments, Lethbridge established the
“frequency” for both death and violent anger: 40 inches. This also
proved to be the frequency for cold and black. Indeed, colors have
frequency. Grey is 22 inches - not a surprise since it is the color
of both lead and silver. Yellow is 29 and green is 30. After months
of experiments, Lethbridge had constructed his table of frequencies,
and he had discovered that 40 inches was some kind of limit.
single substance that he tested fell between zero and 40 inches. It
was at this point that he discovered something curious: Sulphur
reacts to a 7 inch pendulum; if he extended the pendulum to 47
inches, it would still react to sulphur, but not directly over it.
It would only react a little to one side. He then discovered that
this was true of everything else he tried beyond the number 40 - it
would react, but only to one side. He noticed another odd thing:
beyond 40 inches, there was no rate for the concept of time. The
pendulum simply would not respond.
Lethbridge realized that he was
measuring a different dimension.
However, when he lengthened the
pendulum to 80 inches, there was a response to the idea of time. Lethbridge pondered this and finally theorized that in the realm
beyond 40, the pendulum is in time itself, and that is why there is
no reaction to the idea. But, beyond that, there are other “realms”
where the idea of time exists in another world “beyond death”.
Lethbridge discovered that if he lengthened the string again beyond
80 inches, he got the same result, as if there were still another
dimension. Lethbridge realized that he had discovered worlds in
other dimensions, outside the limits of space and time, and
theorized that we cannot see it because our physical bodies are
Tom Lethbridge continued with his experiments and determined that
the world of the “next” level beyond our own is one in which the
energy vibrations are four times as fast as those of our world. The
effect of encountering this reality is like a fast train passing a
slow one. Even though they are both moving forward, the slow train
seems to be moving backward. This hyperdimensional world is all
around us, yet we are unable to see it because it is beyond the
range of our senses. All the objects of our world are very likely
just our limited perceptions of what is happening in this total
His experiments with megaliths indicated that they were placed to
mark places where the earth forces were most powerful, and to
harness energy in some way now forgotten.
Unfortunately, Lethbridge died of a heart attack before he could
complete his researches.
At this point we would like to note that Tom Lethbridge was not a
spiritualist. He believed that magic, spiritualism, occultism and
other forms of mumbo jumbo are merely crude attempts to understand
the vast realm of hidden energies in which we live. We would like to
add that expositions along the lines of most esoterica generally serve only to obscure, not to
reveal; to disinform, rather than to produce real knowledge.
Tom Lethbridge used logic and experiment and observation to come to the
conclusion that there are other realms of reality beyond our world
and that there are forms of energy that we do not even begin to
Stones and “Sacred Geometry”
Coming back now to our
stones, and the questions about their placement, we realize that
this matter is not as simple as the many “Sacred Geometry”
specialists would have us believe. We need to do more investigating
before we come to any solid conclusions about earth grids and what
they may or may not do.
176 Lethbridge, T.C., The
Power of the Pendulum (Viking, Penguin, 1991); also see Wilson,
Colin, Mysteries (Putnam Publishing Group, 1980).
The temple at
Baalbek, Lebanon, is probably
one of the most astonishing structures on earth due to the sheer
size of the stones used in its construction. In a quarry about a
mile away from the actual temple is an abandoned stone that was
never used. It is the biggest stone block ever cut by man and its
measurements are 68 ft by 14 feet wide and 14 feet tall. In other
words, it is a single building block that is as large as two
complete modest homes put together. The block is estimated to weigh
From this single block, if cut into manageable pieces,
stonemasons could build 15 houses, each 20 by 40 feet, with walls a
foot thick. The Egyptian obelisks were large; each being a single
block, but the largest one standing today is less than half the size
of this stone. The marble for the columns of Baalbek was obtained
from a quarry far up the Nile, and then overland for 400 miles. The
column drums themselves were cut in sections 20 feet long. The
platform upon which Baalbek is built is composed of granite blocks
and measures 900 feet by 600 feet.
In this platform are positioned
three stones that are each 63 feet long, 13 feet high, and 10 feet
thick. The doorway of the “smaller” temple of Bacchus at Baalbek is
fifty feet high and is said to be the most marvelous doorway in all
of ancient architecture. Even as a ruin, having been damaged by wars
and earthquakes, Baalbek is still one of the most awesome sights in
Curiously, most of those who write about ancient
monuments seldom mention Baalbek except in passing.
One has to
wonder if it is because they simply prefer to not have to think
about the cutting and moving of those stones?
The Coral Castle and Spinning Airplane Seats
In October of 1994, I asked the Cassiopaeans - myself in the future - how the stones of Baalbek were cut and moved. They replied that it
was done by “sound wave focusing”. Well, sure!
But then they added
that I was going to discover something about this myself, and they
cryptically mentioned the “Coral Castle”.
Edward Leedskalnin was a 100-pound, unschooled wizard who
single-handedly built an edifice known as the Coral Castle down in
Some of the stones Edward used in the construction of
the Coral Castle weigh 28 tons. That is not in the same ballpark as
the stones of Baalbek, but for the work of a single, little guy, it
suggests to us that he certainly discovered something!
Leedskalnin also produced several pamphlets for sale during the
mid-1940’s dealing with magnetic currents. These pamphlets describe
various experiments he undertook with home made magnets that he
created using such things as welding rods, steel fishing line, and
automobile batteries. It is thought that he was explicating the
ideas that would lead the insightful reader to the same discovery he
had made himself. So far, no one has figured it out except to
propose that it had something to do with the so-called “earth grid”,
which, as we will see, is more nonsense.
As it happens, even though I lived my entire life in Florida, I had
never been to see this purported marvel, and the only things I knew
about it were what I had learned by watching a television program
about it on Unsolved Mysteries, I believe.
The February following the Cassiopaean’s remark about the Coral
Castle, I was invited to give a talk to a study group in Orlando.
After my little talk, a funny old man came up to me with a big grin
on his face, grabbed my hand and shook it vigorously and said to me
with a faint accent,
“Ya know, I’ve been studying this UFO business
for over 40 years - I talked with Hynek and Major Keyhoe and all
that - and you are the first person I have ever heard who has gotten
up in public and described it as it really is! I have some material
you might be interested in. You should come and see me some time”!
Well, I thought he was just an old guy with a lot of time on his
hands that needed company and might be using this as an excuse to
get it. I thanked him, chatted a bit, and when he went off to get a
snack, I “mingled” in the direction of the host of the event who was
chatting with several other people, intending to make my adieus.
was apparently describing the Florida tourist attractions to a group
of out-of-towners when he said,
“And you might want to go down and
have a look at this Coral Castle, too”!
“What is that?”, one of them asked.
The host proceeded to recap the
Unsolved Mysteries presentation.
Then he said: “You can ask Henry
over there”, pointing at my little old man who knew Hynek, “he was a
close friend of the guy who built the Coral Castle”.
Well, needless to say, after hearing this, I remembered
the Cassiopaeans had said that I would “discover” something about this
I decided that I wouldn’t leave just yet, and
went back to chat with the old man and said,
“I hear you knew the
guy who built the Coral Castle?”
“Ayup! Sure did! Knew him for years! I was stationed over there in
Homestead area after the war and got to know him pretty well.”
I asked, “Did he ever tell you how he did it?”
“Nope. He never would tell anybody. He would always say that he knew
the secret of how the pyramids were built, but nobody ever saw him
do it. I have some ideas about it, though, and I wrote a little book
about him and my experiences and observations. You know, it’s a
shame that the television program didn’t give the real story! All that nonsense about ‘Sweet
Sixteen’ and a ‘broken heart’ and so on! What a lot of crap! Sure!
If you come to visit, I can show you what I do know! Do ‘ya know
something? I am the only person ole Edward ever invited inside his
private living quarters! Ayup! He was a real loner!”
I was already making plans for a visit!
I made the trip back over to the Orlando area within a couple of
weeks. I was truly amazed at what I found. Henry hadn’t been
exaggerating when he said he had been interested in studying UFOs
for forty years. His home was a veritable museum of UFOs! There were
paintings, enlarged photographs on the walls, knick-knacks and
memorabilia on the tables; and books! He had a HUGE collection of
books in bookcases and papers in boxes all over his house.
one of these boxes he pulled a loose-leaf notebook containing a
typewritten manuscript. It had black and white photographs stuck in
the appropriate places with corner tabs, and he said it was the only
copy. I was appalled at that and offered to transcribe it onto the
computer and give him a copy on diskette. He said he would like that
very much, but he was not yet ready to let the only existing copy
leave his possession. I certainly understood.
The manuscript was
about his long friendship with Edward Leedskalnin and all their
conversations. Henry wasn’t one to pry, and that may be why he was
accepted as a friend. The photographs were of Henry and Edward - Henry
in his military uniform - and many others of his children playing
among the great blocks of the Coral Castle.
I regret that I did not read the book carefully - because Henry died
in 1996 - but there was no time with all the other fascinating things
to do and see. Henry took me on a tour of his memorabilia, his
photographs, and his books. It was just too much to absorb at once!
Finally, we sat down and I was able to ask about that most
interesting of clues that Henry had let drop - that he had been inside
the living quarters of Edward Leedskalnin while Edward was still
living. I wanted to know what he had observed.
Henry described how Edward had done a lot of experiments and knew
all kinds of secrets, but that he was very paranoid. That is why he
told the crazy story about “Sweet Sixteen” and the phony broken
heart. It was to put people off the trail, or so he thought. Edward
had the idea that if he let it be known exactly what he knew, he
would be picked up by some government officials and never seen
Well, maybe he wasn’t crazy!
Henry told me that, after much, or all, of the Coral Castle had been
built, Edward had moved it from one location to another. Apparently
there was some question of zoning and Edward was told he had to tear
it down or move it. He moved it.
Certain “researchers” have claimed that it was moved because of some
theory of earth grids relating to Sacred Geometry, but that does not
seem to be true based on what Henry told me. It was simply a
question of zoning and county regulations. And, since it was built
in a different original location, that pretty much discounts the
idea that the location was important to the act of building. It
simply wasn’t, and the evidence does not support the idea.
The mode of the moving of this pile of rocks was what was so
interesting to me. Apparently, Edward hired a truck and driver; only
he would have the driver park the truck overnight and send him home. The next morning, the truck
would be loaded with the huge blocks of stone and would be driven to
the new site.
There was a block and tackle on tall poles prominently
displayed and, apparently, Edward confided to Henry that this was
his ruse to give the impression that this was what he was using to
unload the blocks. He would send the driver off on an errand,
leaving the truck there with the blocks on it, and when the driver
would return, the truck would be unloaded. This was repeated over
and over again until all the stones were moved to the new site.
There are reports that say he placed his hands on the stones and
“sang” to them.
Another peculiar thing was that Henry told me he had visited the
quarry where the stones were cut and there were no tailings!
Tailings are the stone equivalent of sawdust. When you saw wood, you
have sawdust. When you cut stone or metal, you have tailings.177 So,
however Leedskalnin cut these stones, it was not a usual method!
177 Remember Schoch’s findings
about the stones of the underwater monuments. They didn’t appear to
have been cut.
The final and most interesting part of Henry’s story was the
description of the living quarters of Edward Leedskalnin.
to Henry, there were three pieces of ordinary furniture in the room:
a cot type bed, a hand-made wooden table with a framed screen that
fit over the top to keep insects off the food which was stored there
since Edward had no refrigerator, and a hand-made wooden chair. What
was not ordinary was an airplane seat suspended by chain from the
ceiling - complete with seatbelt.
Now, for an extremely ascetic man, one who slept on a simple cot,
and ate the simplest of diets, and who had absolutely no use for any
kind of luxuries or comforts at all, what was he doing with an
airplane seat suspended from the ceiling?
I thought about this for a while. I thought about swinging in such a
seat. But if swinging was all that wanted, why not just build a
wooden swing that would be in keeping with the other hand-made
wooden items in the room.
But Edward did not do that. He had an airplane seat with a seatbelt.
Well, let’s consider some of the things he has written in his
little pamphlets. Edward writes about sphere or ball magnets, which
can change the poles to any location on the sphere. He discusses
lengths of magnetization (North vs. South) in a rod as varying by
Earth’s latitude. North and South are separate magnetic currents,
running “against the other” in whirling, right-hand screw like
fashion, i.e. dextrorotatory helices.
He then says:
Magnets they are the cosmic force, they hold together this earth and
everything on it. […] I have a generator that generates currents on
a small scale from the air without using any magnets around it. […]
The natural path to the North Pole magnets in the Northern
Hemisphere is to go down, and the South Pole magnets to go up. When
the magnets are running out of the middle of the earth, as soon as
they meet an object they attract it, on account of the fact that in
any object there has both kinds of magnets in it.178
Now, one just
has to wonder about his “generator” that generates currents “from
the air”, and whether or not it has anything to do with spinning in
a right-hand, screw-like fashion? And then one gets the little light
bulb lighting up over one’s head that suggests that Edward Leedskalnin was using his airplane seat with the seatbelt to sit in
and spin, and that he, himself, was the “generator”. One also thinks
immediately about the length of the chain in reference to
Edward also mentioned another curious thing:
“I have several lily
pools where I keep water. I have watched the lily pools for sixteen
This quote is interesting because of the connection in
legend between the presence of water and “moving stones”, as well as Lethbridge’s connection of water to certain fields. Some ancient
megaliths were said to go down to the nearest stream for a drink at
certain astronomically propitious times of the year. And
“astronomically propitious” may be another clue because, Edward also
suggests that the experimenter “face the east”.
But, we still wonder
about the mode of manifestation of this strange power that we seem
to be approaching from several different directions.
We may find a
clue in the following:
When a time-varying magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnetic, a
rearrangement of local lattice strain fields due to the motion of
non-magnetic domain walls occurs and emits elastic energy. The
interaction between domain walls and lattice defects creates a
discontinuity in the domain wall motion causing a burst of energy
called Magneto-Acoustic Emission (MAE).
The envelope of the
time-averaged MAE bursts has a unique shape, which has been shown to
be dependent upon the frequency and magnitude of the applied field
and factors affecting lattice defects such as embrittlement.
Although domain wall movement is a random process it does exhibit
features of regularity which have been identified by studying
phenomena such as 1/f flicker noise and self-organized criticality
(the “domino effect“). Nevertheless, certain fundamental elements of
the MAE characteristics remain unexplained.179
178 Leedskalnin, Edward, Magnetic Current
(Pomeroy, WA: Health Research 1998) p. 4. Other citations are from
photocopies of a monograph published by Leedskalnin.
179 J. P.
Fulton, B. Wincheski and M. Namkung, A Probabilistic Model for
Simulating Magneto-Acoustic Emission Responses in Ferromagnets M.
Namkung, B. Wincheski, J. P. Fulton and R. G.
What the above is
saying to us is that the application of a magnetic field causes
motion of non-magnetic domain walls in the material and emits
elastic energy. In other words, it makes a sound in response to the
Was Edward Todhunter,
Leedskalnin spinning a precise number of times, at a precise
frequency length, in order to produce an energy within him that
connected him to another realm, which resulted in a “Magneto
Acoustic Emission”? That is, did he produce a sound of a very
special sort that enabled him to move massive blocks of stone, not
because he was strengthened by what he did, but because this sound,
emitted from a timeless dimension that he had tapped, directed at
the stones, had an effect on gravity?
That’s all fine and good for a
single person to be able to utilize such a handy technique to
manhandle some big chunks of rock like they were marshmallows. But
now we want to inquire into how an entire civilization would utilize
such a technology? What can it mean to suggest that in those areas
where the megaliths march along the landscape, and where the
megalithic temples are situated, that the peoples did not produce a
civilization as we know it because they didn’t need to?
How does it
all connect to Morris Jessup’s remark that,
“It may be that this
tremendous power was limited in its application to articles of stone
texture only…[This would] account for the strange fact that almost
all relics of the profound past are non-metallic”?
Egyptian Stone Vases
Both Graham Hancock and Colin Wilson devote considerable time to
describing the marvels of Egypt and the construction of the pyramid
in terms of the possible techniques of cutting the stones with such
amazing accuracy. They describe in some detail the event that led to
the fraudulent dating of the pyramid, which date was taken up by
mainstream archaeologists who cannot now repudiate it because they
have too many other theories and dates hinged on this original
error. What is interesting to us here about Egypt is a discovery
made by Flinders Petrie in the village of Naqada in 1893.
300 miles south of Cairo, and pottery and stone vases were
discovered there that were produced by some technique that has
created considerable controversy.
It seems that the pottery of Naqada had none of the striations that
would indicate that it had been thrown on a wheel. But, without a
pottery wheel, it is almost impossible to get pots to be “perfectly
round”. But this pottery was so perfectly rounded that it was absurd
to think that it had been made by hand without a wheel!
course, dated the pottery to the 11th dynasty, around 2000 BC, based
on his observations of workmanship, rather than on any other
criteria. The pottery was, however, so “un-Egyptian” that he called
the creators “the New Race”. Petrie faced a certain difficulty when
he later found some of these same types of stone vases in tombs of
the First Dynasty dating from, according to Egyptologists, around
3000 BC. At this point, he dropped the Naqada vase from his
chronology, preferring to ignore what he could not explain.
Did the Naqadans produce these artifacts?
The Naqada peoples were descended from Paleolithic farmers who began
raising crops in North Africa around 5000 BC. They buried their dead
facing West, and seemed to be your standard primitive culture. The
only problem was: the vases. The most astonishing of them were,
“tall vases with long, thin, elegant necks and finely flared
interiors, often incorporating fully hollowed-out shoulders”.180
Even more amazing, it seems that more that 30,000 of these vases
were found beneath the Step Pyramid of Zoser at Saqqara.
Christopher Dunn, a toolmaker, wrote an article entitled Advanced
Machining in Ancient Egypt, where he notes:
The millions of tons of rock that the Egyptians had quarried for
their pyramids and temples - and cut with such superb accuracy - reveal
glimpses of a civilization that was technically more advanced than
is generally believed. Even though it is thought that millions of
tons of rock were cut with simple primitive hand tools, such as
copper chisels, adzes and wooden mallets, substantial evidence shows
that this is simply not the case.
Even discounting the argument that
work-hardened copper would not be suitable for cutting igneous rock,
the evidence forces us to look a little harder, and more
objectively, when explaining the manufacturing marks scoured on
ancient granite by ancient stone craftsmen.[…]
Although the Egyptians are not given credit for the simple wheel,
the machine marks they left on the granite found at Giza suggests a
much higher degree of technical accomplishment. Petrie’s conclusion
regarding their mechanical abilities shows a proficiency with the
straight saw, circular saw, tube-drill, and surprisingly, even the
lathe.181 Naturally, Egyptologists do nothing but disparage and
attack such views, but they are unable to produce any evidence to
support their claims, while there is an ever-growing mountain of
evidence to support the ancient technology.
Again, I suggest that
Egyptologists ought to be required to have engineering degrees, as
well as broader educations in other terms. It is Egyptologists who
seem to be the fundamental arbiters of our history, and over and
over again, we will find that they are the blind leading the blind.
Getting back to Dunn, he examined blocks that had been hollowed out
with some kind of drill in the Valley Temple at Giza. He noted that
the drill marks left in the hole show that it was cutting into the
rock at the rate of a tenth of an inch for every revolution of the
180 Hancock, Fingerprints of
the Gods, op cit.
181 See: Technologies of Ancient Egypt by Christopher P. Dunn (Bear
and Co. 1998).
182 Wilson, op. cit.
What is so amazing about that?
As it happens, such a rate
cannot be achieved by hand without the application of over a ton of
pressure. And that is patently absurd to consider in terms of hand
drilling! Dunn inquired of specialists in drilling machinery and was
informed that the best drills we have today, spinning at the rate of
900 revolutions per minute, can only cut into similar stone at the
rate of one ten thousandth of an inch per revolution.
Conclusion? The builders of the pyramids and the creators of the stone vases had
drills that either worked 500 times as fast as those we have today,
or they had a “secret”.
Colin Wilson tells us:
Another aspect of the problem began to provide Dunn with a glimmer
of a solution. A hole drilled into a rock that was a mixture of
quartz and feldspar showed that the “drill” had cut faster through
the quartz than the feldspar, although quartz is harder than
feldspar. The solution that he suggests sounds almost beyond belief.
He points out that modern ultrasonic machining uses a tool that
depends on vibration.[…]
Quartz crystals are used in the production
of ultrasonic sound, and conversely, respond to ultrasonic
vibrations. This would explain why the “bit” cut faster through the
quartz than the feldspar. What is being suggested sounds, admittedly, absurd: that the
Egyptians had some force as powerful as our modern electricity, and
that this force was based on sound.183
Wilson, op. cit.
As Wilson and Hancock point
out, this explanation goes a long way toward explaining the vases
with swan necks that are hollowed out of such hard and brittle
materials. He also notes how embarrassed Petrie would have been to
know that similar vases have been removed from strata dated to 4000
BC when Egypt was supposed to have been occupied by nomads in tents.
But, we do still have the fact that there were nomads in tents at
that point, and the only solution I can see is that these peoples
were survivors of a cataclysmic event, and that they continued to
use whatever they could find from their lost civilization. In this
way, vases and other artifacts, scavenged from ruins, would be found
in any number of “strata” laid down after such an event. It seems
that these vases could be evidence that Petrie’s “New Race”
pre-dated pharonic Egypt by thousands of years.
We come back to Edward Leedskalnin who claimed to have discovered
the secret of how the pyramids were built.
And the theorists are
having a field day!
Pythagoras and the Barbarians
We have touched briefly in earlier sections on the issue of sacred
geometry, which is often related to the secret significance of
numbers. Most of the current craze for these ideas is usually traced
back to Pythagoras. We believe Pythagoras has been maligned by these
new age purveyors of sacred geometry and sacred numbers. Naturally,
when one is considering the “secret significance” of numbers,
Pythagorean Mathematics will be among the earliest considerations.
Manly Hall wrote that:
The true key to philosophic mathematics is the famous Forty-seventh
Proposition of Pythagoras, erroneously attributed to Euclid. The
Forty-seventh Theorem is stated thus: In a right-angled triangle the
square described on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the
squares described on the other two sides.184
Hall, Manly P.,
The Secret Teachings of All Ages (Los Angeles:
The Philosophical Research Society 1988) p. LXIX (facing page).
Everyone who has
attended public school and paid the slightest attention in math
class knows that one. The problem is: what does it really mean that
it is the “true key to philosophic mathematics”? What does C2=A2+B2
have to tell us? Accounts of the travels and studies of Pythagoras
differ, but most historians agree that he visited many countries and
studied at the feet of many masters.
Supposedly, after having been
initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries, he went to Egypt and was
initiated into the Mysteries of Isis. He then traveled to Phoenicia
and Syria and was initiated into the Mysteries of Adonis. After
that, he traveled to the valley of the Euphrates and learned all the
secrets of the Chaldeans still living in the area of Babylon.
Finally, he traveled to Media and Persia, then to India where he was
a pupil and initiate of the Brahmins there. Sounds like he had all
the bases covered.
Pythagoras was said to have invented the term “philosopher” in
preference to the word “sage” since the former meant one who is
attempting to find the truth, and the latter means one who knows the
truth. Apparently Pythagoras didn’t think he had the whole banana.
Pythagoras started a school at Crotona in Southern Italy and
gathered students and disciples there whom he supposedly instructed
in the principles of the secrets that had been revealed to him. He
considered mathematics, music and astronomy to be the foundation of
all the arts and sciences. When he was about sixty years old, he
married one of his disciples and had seven children. I guess he was
a pretty lively senior citizen! His wife was, apparently, quite a
woman in her own right, and she carried on his work after he was
assassinated by a band of murderers incited to violence by a student
whom he refused to initiate.
The accounts of Pythagoras’ murder
Some say he and all his disciples were killed, others say that
he may have escaped because some of his students protected him by
sacrificing themselves and that he later died of a broken heart when
he realized the apparent fruitlessness of his efforts to illuminate
The experts say that very little remains of the teachings of
Pythagoras in the present time unless it has been handed down in
secret schools or societies. Naturally, every secret society on the
planet claims to have this “initiated” knowledge to one extent or
another. It is possible that there exists some of the
original secret numerical
formulas of Pythagoras, but the sad fact is that there is no real
evidence of it in the writings that have issued from these groups
for the past millennium.
Though everyone discusses Pythagoras, no
one seems to know any more than the post-Pythagorean Greek
speculators who, as Manley Hall put it,
“talked much, wrote little,
knew less, and concealed their ignorance under a series of
mysterious hints and promises”.
There seems to be a lot of that
going around these days! Even Plutarch did not pretend to be able to
explain the significance of the geometrical diagrams of Pythagoras.
However, he did make the most interesting suggestion that the
relationship which Pythagoras established between the geometrical
solids and the Gods was the result of images seen in the Egyptian
temples. The question we would ask is: what do geometrical solids
have to do with “Gods”?
Albert Pike, the great Masonic symbolist, also admitted that there
were many things that he couldn’t figure out.
In his Symbolism for
the 32nd and 33rd degrees he wrote:
I do not understand why the 7 should be called Minerva, or the cube,
Neptune. ...Undoubtedly the names given by the Pythagoreans to the
different numbers were themselves enigmatical and symbolic - and there
is little doubt that in the time of Plutarch the meanings these
names concealed were lost. Pythagoras had succeeded too well in
concealing his symbols with a veil that was from the first
impenetrable, without his oral explanation.185
Manly Hall writes:
This uncertainty shared by all true students of the subject proves
conclusively that it is unwise to make definite statements founded
on the indefinite and fragmentary information available concerning
the Pythagorean system of mathematical philosophy.186
185 Cited by Hall, ibid., p. LXIX.
little we have examined thus far, we are beginning to realize how
true this latter remark is. Of course, in the present time, there is
a whole raft of folks who don’t let such remarks stop them. Any
number of modern gurus claim to have discovered the secrets of
“Sacred Geometry”! Not only that, they don’t seem to have even
studied the matter deeply at all, missing many of the salient points
that are evident in the fragments of Pythagorean teachings.
Regarding this, there is a passage in Foucault’s Pendulum, by
Umberto Eco, that explicates the problem:
Amid all the nonsense there are some unimpeachable truths... I
invite you to go and measure [an arbitrarily selected] kiosk. You
will see that the length of the counter is one hundred and
forty-nine centimeters - in other words, one hundred-billionth of the
distance between the earth and the sun. The height at the rear, one
hundred and seventy-six centimeters, divided by the width of the
window, fifty-six centimeters, is 3.14. The height at the front
is nineteen decimeters, equal, in other words, to the number of
years of the Greek lunar cycle.
The sum of the heights of the two
front corners is one hundred and ninety times two plus one hundred
and seventy-six times two, which equals seven hundred and
thirty-two, the date of the victory at Poitiers. The thickness of
the counter is 3.10 centimeters, and the width of the cornice of the
window is 8.8 centimeters. Replacing the numbers before the decimals
by the corresponding letters of the alphabet, we obtain C for ten
and H for eight, or C10H8, which is the formula for naphthalene.
...With numbers you can do anything you like. Suppose I have the
sacred number 9 and I want to get the number 1314, date of the
execution of Jacques de Molay - a date dear to anyone who professes
devotion to the Templar tradition of knighthood. ...Multiply nine by
one hundred and forty-six, the fateful day of the destruction of
Carthage. How did I arrive at this? I divided thirteen hundred and
fourteen by two, by three, et cetera, until I found a satisfying
date. I could also have divided thirteen hundred and fourteen by
6.28, the double of 3.14, and I would have got two hundred and nine.
That is the year Attalus I, king of Pergamon, ascended the throne.
You see? ...The universe is a great symphony of numerical
correspondences... numbers and their symbolisms provide a path to
special knowledge. But if the world, below and above, is a system of
correspondences where tout se tient, it’s natural for the [lottery]
kiosk and the pyramid, both works of man, to reproduce in their
structure, unconsciously, the harmonies of the cosmos.187
187 Eco, Umberto, Foucault’s Pendulum, (San Diego,
New York, London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1988) pp. 288-289.
has been promoted with great vigor for over a thousand years that
so-called Kabbalists and “interpreters of mysteries” can discover
with their incredibly tortuous methods The Truth. This arrogance
completely misses the point of a truth that is far more ancient:
Mathematics is the language of Nature. The Pythagoreans declared
arithmetic to be the mother of the mathematical sciences.
was based on the fact that geometry, music, and astronomy are
dependent upon arithmetic, but arithmetic is not dependent upon
them. In this sense, geometry may be removed but arithmetic will
remain; but if arithmetic were removed, geometry will be eliminated.
In the same way, music depends on arithmetic. Eliminating music
affects arithmetic only by limiting one of its expressions.
The size, form, and motion of the celestial bodies are determined by
the use of geometry and their harmony and rhythm by the use of
music. If astronomy is taken away, neither geometry nor music is
harmed; but if geometry and music are done away with, astronomy is
destroyed. The priority of both geometry and music to astronomy is
established and arithmetic is prior to all of them, being primary
and fundamental. Playing endless games with numbers demonstrates
only that which cannot be otherwise.
secret seems to be much more profound and most, if not nearly all,
“seekers” of truths never penetrate beyond the surface of the
matter. Nevertheless, we have now reached the point where we have
some idea that there was an ancient technology that utilized simple
arithmetic, and geometry, or spatial relationships, in conjunction
with sound, to accomplish something of great import. We have also
come to the idea that this ancient technology was the science of the
mastery of space and time and gravity. This is the great secret of
the Golden Age.
This is why their civilization was based on
different elements than our own. Aside from the fact that cataclysms
may have washed away most of the evidence of this civilization, we
have here an additional reason for the lack of metal and other such
artifacts of the type we would consider to be evidence of
The Dancing God
Getting back to our spinning Edward Leedskalnin in his airplane
seat, we realize that he must have stumbled onto this secret and was
able to utilize it to some extent. But Leedskalnin didn’t have a
landscape covered with megaliths to collect and store energy. Edward
had an airplane seat suspended from the ceiling by a chain. How can
this possibly give us a hint about what the ancients were doing?
Searching for clues as to how the ancients utilized this technology,
we find the following most interesting item. Diodorus Siculus,
writing in the first century BC, gives us a description of Britain
based, in part, on the voyage of Pytheas of Massilia, who sailed
around Britain in 300 BC.
As for the inhabitants, they are simple and far removed from the
shrewdness and vice which characterize our day. Their way of living
is modest, since they are well clear of the luxury that is begotten
of wealth. The island is also thickly populated and its climate is
extremely cold, as one would expect, since it actually lies under
the Great Bear. It is held by many kings and potentates, who for the
most part live at peace among themselves.188
188 Diodorus of Sicily, English translation by C. H.
Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library, Volumes II and III. London,
William Heinemann, and Cambridge, Mass., USA, Harvard University
Press, 1935 and 1939.
Diodorus then tells a
fascinating story about the Hyperboreans that was obviously of
legendary character already when he was writing:
Of those who have written about the ancient myths, Hecateus and
certain others say that in the regions beyond the land of the Celts
(Gaul) there lies in the ocean an island no smaller than Sicily.
This island, the account continues, is situated in the north, and is
inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because
their home is beyond the point whence the north wind blows; and the
land is both fertile and productive of every
crop, and since it has an unusually temperate climate it produces
two harvests each year.189
Now, it seems that there is little doubt
that Diodorus is describing the same location, but we notice that
the climate is so vastly different in the two descriptions that we
can hardly make the connection. However, let us just suppose that
his description of Britain was based on the climate that prevailed
at the time he was writing, and the legendary description of the
Hyperboreans was based on a previous climatic condition that was
preserved in the story.
Diodorus stresses that he is recounting
something very ancient as he goes on to say:
The Hyperboreans also have a language, we are informed, which is
peculiar to them, and are most friendly disposed towards the Greeks,
and especially towards the Athenians and the Delians, who have
inherited this goodwill from most ancient times. The myth also
relates that certain Greeks visited the Hyperboreans and left behind
them costly votive offerings bearing inscriptions in Greek letters.
And in the same way Abaris, a Hyperborean, came to Greece in ancient
times and renewed the goodwill and kinship of his people to the
Diodorus remark about the relations between the
Hyperboreans and the Athenians triggers in our minds the memory of
the statement of Plato that the Atlanteans were at war with the
Athenians, and we wonder if the Hyperboreans are the real “early
Athenians”. After all, the Greeks are said to be “Sons of the North
Herodotus expounds upon the relationship of the Hyperboreans to the Delians:
Certain sacred offerings wrapped up in wheat straw come from the
Hyperboreans into Scythia, whence they are taken over by the
neighbouring peoples in succession until they get as far west as the
Adriatic: from there they are sent south, and the first Greeks to
receive them are the Dodonaeans.
Then, continuing southward, they
reach the Malian gulf, cross to Euboea, and are passed on from town
to town as far as Carystus. Then they skip Andros, the Carystians
take them to Tenos, and the Tenians to Delos. That is how these
things are said to reach Delos at the present time.191
191 Herodotus, The Histories, Book IV, trans. Aubrey De Selincourt,
revised John Marincola (London:
Penguin 1972) p. 226
connection between the Hyperboreans and the Delians leads us to
another interesting remark of Herodotus who tells us that Leto, the
mother of Apollo, was born on the island of the Hyperboreans. That
there was regular contact between the Greeks and the Hyperboreans
over many centuries does not seem to be in doubt. The Hyperboreans
were said to have introduced the Greeks to the worship of Apollo,
but it is just as likely that the relationship goes much
further back. Yes, this is contrary to the idea that culture flowed
from south to north, but we are writing a contrary book; so don’t
let that bother you!
Herodotus has another interesting thing to say
about the Hyperboreans and their sending of sacred offerings to
On the first occasion they were sent in charge of two girls, whose
names the Delians say were Hyperoche and Laodice. To protect the
girls on the journey, the Hyperboreans sent five men to accompany
them … the two Hyperborean girls died in Delos, and the boys and
girls of the island still cut their hair as a sign of mourning for
them… There is also a Delphic story that before the time of
Hyperoche and Laodice, two other Hyperborean girls, Arge and Opis,
came to Delos by the same route. …Arge and Opis came to the island
at the same time as Apollo and Artemis…192
Herodotus mentions at
another point, when discussing the lands of the “barbarians”,
these except the Hyperboreans, were continually encroaching upon one
Without putting words in Herodotus’ mouth, it
seems to suggest that the Hyperboreans were not warlike at all.
A further clue about the religion of the Hyperboreans comes from the
myths of Orpheus. It is said that when Dionysus invaded Thrace,
Orpheus did not see fit to honor him but instead preached the evils
of sacrificial murder to the men of Thrace. He taught “other sacred
mysteries” having to do with Apollo, whom he believed to be the
greatest of all Gods. Dionysus became so enraged; he set the Maenads
on Orpheus at Apollo’s temple where Orpheus was a priest.
in, murdered their husbands who were assembled to hear Orpheus
speak, tore Orpheus limb from limb, and threw his head into the
river Hebrus where it floated downstream still singing. It was
carried on the sea to the island of Lesbos. Another version of the
story is that Zeus killed Orpheus with a thunderbolt for divulging
divine secrets. He was responsible for instituting the Mysteries of
Apollo in Thrace, Hecate in Aegina, and Subterrene Demeter at
192 Herodotus, The
Histories, pp. 226-227.
193 See: Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths (London: Penguin, London)
And this brings us to a further revelation of Diodorus
regarding the Hyperboreans:
And there is also on the island both a magnificent sacred precinct
of Apollo and a notable temple, which is adorned with many votive
offerings and is spherical in shape. Furthermore, a city is there
which is sacred to this God, and the majority of its inhabitants are
players on the cithara; and these continually play on this
instrument in the temple and sing hymns of praise to the God,
glorifying his deeds… They say also that the moon, as viewed from
this island, appears to be but a little distance from the earth and
to have upon it prominences, like those of the earth, which are
visible to the eye.
The account is also given that the God visits
the island every nineteen years, the period in which the return of
the stars to the same place in the heavens is accomplished, and for
this reason the Greeks call the nineteen-year period the “year of Meton”.
At the time of this appearance of the God he both plays on the
cithara and dances continuously the night through from the vernal
equinox until the rising of the Pleiades, expressing in this manner
his delight in his successes. And the kings of this city and the
supervisors of the sacred precinct are called Boreades, since they
are descendants of Boreas, and the succession to these positions is
always kept in their family.194
194 Diodorus, op. cit..
I would like to note immediately how
similar the above story of the Maenads murdering their husbands is
to the story of the daughters of Danaus murdering their husbands on
the wedding night connected to the story of the massacre at the
Cloisters of Ambrius attributed much later to Hengist and Horsa.
Keeping in mind that the Danaans were the family of the hero Perseus
who cut off the head of Medusa, while comparing this to the
beheading of Orpheus and his “singing” head floating down the river.
The two themes, wives murdering husbands and a significant beheading
are startling enough to give us pause. Was an original legend then
later adapted to a different usage, assimilated to a different group
or tribe? More than once?
In any event, we have discovered a most interesting little
collection of things all in one place. First a “round temple” on an
island that can only be Britain, may be describing Stonehenge and
the way in which it was utilized by a group of people. Next we see
that Diodorus is suggesting that the 19-year lunar calendar is a
product of the Hyperboreans and that it relates to a period in which
the “return of the stars” is accomplished.
We realize immediately
that these “stars” must refer to a geometric relationship between
the Sun, Moon and Earth, rather than the “stars” in terms of real
stars and the planets because they certainly do not “return” to any
particular position every nineteen years. And we now suspect that
this may have something to do with a gravitational node of a
three-body system. We begin to think that these ancient people
really knew something! In the Temple of Apollo, we also find that
there are musicians whose job it is to continually play in the
temple and sing, and the most famous of ancient singers and
musicians is associated with the worship of Apollo. This suggests to
us the possible use of sound for something; the utilization of
gravitational nodes, perhaps?
There is an additional puzzle here. What did it mean that every
nineteen years a God “dances” from the vernal equinox until the
rising of the Pleiades?
This suggests to us a very specific date is
being recorded in this myth. The heliacal rising of the Pleiades
does not happen every 19 years. So, aside from telling us about a
regular event that occurred every nineteen years, the myth has
recorded something else very significant, the date of which is
internal to the myth. When did the Pleiades rise just before the sun
on the vernal equinox?
There are many who assume that a “heliacal rising” means that a star
or constellation is in conjunction with the sun. But this is
probably not correct. The ancients were practicing observational
Otto Neugebauer, in his many studies regarding what the
ancients did or did not know about science and mathematics, noted
When we watch the stars rise over the eastern horizon, we see them
appear night after night at the same spot on the horizon. But when
we extend our observation into the period of twilight, fewer and
fewer stars will be recognizable when they cross the horizon, and
near sunrise all stars will have faded out altogether.
suppose that a certain star S was seen just rising at the beginning
of dawn but vanished from sight within a very short time because of
the rapid approach of daylight. We call this phenomenon the
“heliacal rising” of S, using a term of Greek astronomy. Let us
assume that we use this phenomenon as the indication of the end of
“night” and consider S as the star of the “last hour of night”. […]
We may continue in the same way for several days, but during this
time a definite change takes place. […]
Obviously, after some lapse
of time, it no longer makes sense to take S as the indicator of the
last hour of night. But there are new stars that can take the place
of S. Thus year after year S may serve for some days as the star of
the last hour, to be replaced in regular order by other stars.195
195 Neugebauer, op. cit.
order to observe a heliacal rising of a star or group of stars, they
must rise long enough before the sun to be “observed”, because as
soon as the sun rises, the stars can no longer be seen. The heliacal
rising of the Pleiades would have to occur at least 36 minutes
before the sun comes up, in order to be seen.
So, the real question
seems to be:
When did the Pleiades rise around half an hour before
the sun, at the time of the equinox?
When were the Pleiades the
stars of the “last hour of the night”, and what might have been the
significance of this event?
Certain “standard” texts, written by
individuals who have not taken into account the observational nature
of a heliacal rising, have given 2300 BC as the date, because this
was when the Pleiades were conjunct the Sun on the Vernal equinox.
However, after careful calculations of our own, as well as
assistance by expert astronomers, the date of the actual heliacal
rising of the Pleiades, in the terms that Neugebauer has given us,
occurred on April 16, 3100 BC. This date is most certainly correct
as we will see further on.
There is an even greater mystery here regarding the Pleiades.
cave of Lascaux, there is a prehistoric image of an Auroch, which is
the largest picture in the whole assembly of images, and is painted
almost entirely on the ceiling of the cave. Above the back of the
Auroch, a strange figure of a cluster of six floating points can be
seen. The distribution of the dots does not seem to be haphazard,
but rather shows a clear structural element.
It looks, in fact, like
an exact portrayal of the constellation Taurus with the star cluster
of the Pleiades placed precisely as
they actually relate to the
constellation. The Navajo in America have also portrayed the
Pleiades in exactly this same six-star arrangement in modern times,
as handed down to them by their ancestors.196 The constellation
Taurus was originally a complete image of a bull in the sky. The
Babylonians called it the heavenly bull, and the Pleiades were
recognized as the “bristle on the neck of the bull”. At some point,
the bull was cut in half to create Aries and Cetus, the whale.
196 Chamberlain, Von Del,
“Navajo Constellations in Literature, Art, Artifact and a New Mexico
Rock Art Site”, Archaeoastronomy 6 (1-4):48-58, 1983.
So here we have a very interesting confluence of seemingly unrelated
We will pass from that subject for the moment to return to our
matter of the dancing God who came every 19 years to Stonehenge, and
how it may relate to spinning in airplane seats, producing sounds,
and overcoming gravity - and perhaps even space and time and matter.
What we find is that these elements are all connected in such a way
that we suspect that they were elements of a technology that enabled
an entire group of people to live in harmony, and to produce all
they needed so that the artifacts of civilization, as we know them,
were not required by these peoples.
What is more, they seem to have
been related to their ability to perform feats of which we are
incapable with all our technology. These “wonders” that are the
stuff of myth to us now, were, apparently, part of their daily
In searching for additional clues in the nature religions associated
with the symbols of the Holy Grail, we find that dancing was part of
the archaic grail ensemble. The Sword Dances, Morris Dances, and
Mumming Plays, for example, seem to be an inherited tradition of
solemn ceremonial dances performed at stated seasons.
And that is
exactly what Diodorus has told us: The God danced all night every 19
years at the time of the Equinox.
Jessie Weston, among others, was moved to think of these dances and
the entire Grail cycle ensemble as a ritual designed to “preserve
and promote the regular and ordered sequence of the processes of
Nature”. In other words, the disjecta membra of the advanced
technology of a vanished civilization.
It seems to us, from looking at the evidence of the absolute reality
of what these people were capable of doing, that the dances, the
myths, and the rites, all point to an archaic technology that is
preserved idealistically as “promoting the processes of Nature”, but
it was actually a direct interaction with Nature that resulted in
the manifest production of all that was needed by the peoples in a
literal and immediate sense.
The earliest recorded Sword Dancers are the Maruts, the attendants
of the God Indra.
They are a group of youths of equal age and
identical parentage and are always dressed alike, and they are
always dancers. Throughout the Rg-Veda the
Maruts are referred to as,
“Gold bedecked dancers… with songs of
praise they danced round the spring… When ye Maruts spear-armed
dance, [the Heavens] stream together like waves of water”.197
image of the “spear armed” dancing of course has led people to think
that they are dancing with spears, but what if it means something
Anyone who has watched traditional Celtic
dances is immediately struck by the stiff armed posture of the
dancers who only move the lower parts of their bodies. Dancing in
perfect synchrony on a wooden platform produces a hypnotic and
thrilling effect, and we find here a possible system of elevation of
consciousness that might produce vibratory effects not only in
stone, but also in the very cells of both the dancers and the
More than this, when we consider the immobility of the
upper part of the body, and the stylized motion of the lower part of
the body, we think of the “length of string” attached to a pendulum
that accesses other realities. We may also consider the addition of
a real “lance” as a “lengthener” of the “string”, or something that
was incorporated to connect the dancer to a specific frequency. Add
to it very specific music, utilized to amplify the energetic
effects, or sound that was a result of the dance, and we begin to
see a very different picture of the dance of Apollo at Stonehenge
every 19 years.
In fact, we are reminded of that curious story where
an alchemist supposedly told Jacques Bergier:
Certain geometrical arrangements of highly purified materials are
enough to release atomic forces without having recourse to either
electricity or vacuum techniques.198
Most especially when we recall
For it is by fire and in fire that our hemisphere will soon be
tried. And just as by means of fire, gold is separated from impure
metals, so, Scripture says, the good will be separated from the
wicked, on the great Day of Judgment. […]199
The Maruts were the
companions of Indra, his helpers in the fight against his
adversaries, the evil Gods who afflict mankind. But more than this,
these dancers, (Dan-cers) were bringers of all necessities to the
people in some magical, mysterious, and astonishing way:
The adorable Maruts, armed with bright lances and cuirassed with
golden breastplates, enjoy vigorous existence; may the cars of the
quick-moving Maruts arrive for our good. …Bringers of rain and
fertility, shedding water, augmenting food. …Givers of abundant
food. …Your milchkine are never dry. …We invoke the food-laden
chariots of the Maruts.200
197 Von Schroeder, Mysterium und Mimus,
quoted by Jessie Weston in From Ritual to Romance, p. 78.
198 Pauwels and Bergier, op. cit.
199 Fulcanelli, Mystery, op. cit. p. 149.
200 Rg-Veda, Vol III.
We now begin to see the wild orgies of the New Year festivals, the
Dionysian frenzies, and the Nature cults with parades of ecstatic
men and women bordering on being in a state of madness, as
corruptions of what was obviously an original, formalized series of
dance type activities.
And this makes us think of the Maze. The
Labyrinth. Troy. Crete. Egypt?
Hundreds of mazes and labyrinths are found scattered across Europe,
parts of Africa, Asia and the Americas. They are composed of turf,
hedges, stone, brick, or tile work on floors. There are paintings
and carvings of mazes on rocks that are incredibly ancient. One of
the oldest representations that I have found is a 20,000-year-old
bracelet carved from a single piece of mammoth ivory, found at
This piece has a magnificent “Greek Meander” or
“maze” design which predates any other maze we are going to discuss
here, but most definitely offers a clue since this area of the world
is that hot-spot of Grail legends identified by Littleton and Malcor.
What most people know about the maze, or labyrinth, is due to the
myth of Theseus and Ariadne. Briefly, the tale tells of King Minos
of Crete, who demanded tribute from Athens, after defeating them in
a war. The tribute was an annual shipment of seven youths and seven
maidens who were sacrificed to the Minotaur by sending them into the
maze, the specially constructed home of the beast, built by the
great architect, Daedalus.
The labyrinth was so cleverly constructed
that even Daedalus had difficulty navigating in it. The Athenian
young people would wander around in the maze, lost, until the
Minotaur, half bull (top half) and half man (bottom half) caught up
with them and devoured them. This, of course, reminds us of
Herodotus’ story of the Hyperborean girls sent to Delos bearing
gifts, who died while there under what seem to be mysterious
As a side note, we would like to draw attention to the fact that
Daedalus, the “great architect”, was connected to a king named
Minos. Another king named Menes was the great unifier of Egypt,
builder of the great city of Memphis, and a famous temple of
Hephaestus there. This is dated to around 3100 BC, and we wonder if
the image of the half bull, half man might not be a clue to a date
such as the point at which the constellation Taurus was “cut in
half” to make room for Aries, the ram, who represents Agni, God of
Hephaestus is, after all, the Greek version of the Smith God.
Discovering a great architect connected, even indirectly, to a great
unifier of two kingdoms and builder of a great Temple on the one
side, and connected to another king with a similar name, and builder
of a great labyrinth which is connected to a “power in the center”, - the Minotaur, keeping in mind the legends of the building of
Stonehenge, the “cloisters of Ambrius” where the God danced all
night in the center around 3100 BC, makes us wonder if this is not
all a clue to the manifestation of a certain power that has to do
with sound and gravity and stones and so forth.
We are naturally
drawn to make connections between these matters and the myth of
Solomon and Hiram Abiff and the Ark of the Covenant. When we think
of the Temple of Solomon (about which we will learn a great deal
further on), which was built to house the Ark, and we then think of
the labyrinth which was built
to house a monster, we naturally wonder just what is going on here?
We also note that the victims of King Minos of Crete were
“Athenians”, and we remember what Plato said about the war between
Atlantis and “Athens”, even if we don’t put any stock in it actually
being the Athens we know today.
According to the myth, the labyrinth was built for one reason only:
to hide the Minotaur, which was a source of horror and shame to
Minos, whose wife had given birth to the monster after mating with a
bull. This really doesn’t follow logic since the victims were
rounded up in public, and everyone apparently knew about the
In South Africa, a popular Zulu game is played where a maze is drawn
on the ground, and the players take turns “finding the way to the
king’s hut” which is at the center. The game is played with toys
carved in the shape of bulls. It seems that, thousands of miles from
Crete, the same elements of the legend are played out from time
immemorial: kingship, bulls, and conflict at the center of a
labyrinth. Excavations at Knossos have indeed uncovered evidence of
a bull cult practiced in a maze like “palace” of hundreds of
chambers and corridors.
There were innumerable images of bulls in
bas-reliefs, small sculptures, bull-shaped vessels, seals and
imprints of seals, as well as stylized bulls’ horns. All of these
things linking the dynasty of Minos with bulls suggested that the
vitality of the Minoan kings, like that of the pharaohs of ancient
Egypt, was identified with the bull-God. What is more, ancient Greek
writers came right out and said that the labyrinth of Minos was
modeled on an original in northern Egypt. Very little survives of
this Egyptian marvel except for a few brick courses.
had to say about it is rather fascinating:
Being set free after the reign of the priest of Hephaistos, the
Egyptians, since they could not live any time without a king, set up
over them twelve kings, having divided all Egypt into twelve parts.
These made intermarriages with one another and reigned, making
agreement that they would not put down one another by force, nor
seek to get an advantage over one another, but would live in perfect
friendship: and the reason why they made these agreements, guarding
them very strongly from violation, was this, namely that an oracle
had been given to them at first when they began to exercise their
rule, that he of them who should pour a libation with a bronze cup
in the temple of Hephaistos, should be king of all Egypt (for they
used to assemble together in all the temples).
Moreover they resolved to join all together and leave a memorial of
themselves; and having so resolved they caused to be made a
labyrinth situated a little above the lake of Moeris and nearly
opposite to that which is called the City of Crocodiles. This I saw
myself, and I found it greater than words can say. For if one should
put together and reckon up all the buildings and all the great works
produced by the Hellenes, they would prove to be inferior in labour
and expense to this labyrinth, though it is true that both the
temple at Ephesos and that at Samos are works worthy of note.
The pyramids also were greater than words can say, and each one of
them is equal to many works of the Hellenes, great as they may be;
but the labyrinth surpasses even the pyramids. It has twelve courts
covered in, with gates facing one another, six upon the North side
and six upon the South, joining on one to another, and the same wall
surrounds them all outside; and there are in it two kinds of
chambers, the one kind below the
ground and the other above upon these, three thousand in number, of
each kind fifteen hundred.
The upper set of chambers we ourselves
saw, going through them, and we tell of them having looked upon them
with our own eyes; but the chambers under ground we heard about
only; for the Egyptians who had charge of them were not willing on
any account to show them, saying that here were the sepulchres of
the kings who had first built this labyrinth and of the sacred
Accordingly we speak of the chambers below by what we received from
hearsay, while those above we saw ourselves and found them to be
works of more than human greatness. For the passages through the
chambers, and the goings this way and that way through the courts,
which were admirably adorned, afforded endless matter for marvel, as
we went through from a court to the chambers beyond it, and from the
chambers to colonnades, and from the colonnades to other rooms, and
then from the chambers again to other courts.
Over the whole of
these is a roof made of stone like the walls; and the walls are
covered with figures carved upon them, each court being surrounded
with pillars of white stone fitted together most perfectly; and at
the end of the labyrinth, by the corner of it, there is a pyramid of
forty fathoms, upon which large figures are carved, and to this
there is a way made under ground.201
201 Herodutus, op. cit. Bk II:147.
What was Herodotus describing?
He declared all the great architectural works of the Greeks and
Egyptians, including the pyramids, to be “inferior in labour and
expense to this labyrinth”. We would also like to note that there
were no references to bulls hidden in the Egyptian labyrinth;
rather, in the hidden underground chambers were the “sepulchres of
the kings who had first built this labyrinth and of the sacred
Diodorus has a slightly different story about who built
this famous labyrinth:
When the king died the government was recovered by Egyptians and
they appointed a native king Mendes, whom some call Mares. Although
he was responsible for no military achievements whatsoever, he did
build himself what is called the Labyrinth as a tomb, an edifice
which is wonderful not so much for its size as for the inimitable
skill with which it was built; for once in, it is impossible to find
one’s way out again without difficulty, unless one lights upon a
guide who is perfectly acquainted with it.
It is even said by some
that Daedalus crossed over to Egypt and, in wonder at the skill
shown in the building, built for Minos, King of Crete, a labyrinth
like that in Egypt, in which, so the tales goes, the creature called
the Minotaur was kept. Be that as it may, the Cretan Labyrinth has
completely disappeared, either through the destruction wrought by
some ruler or through the ravages of time; but the Egyptian
Labyrinth remains absolutely perfect in its entire construction down
to my time. […]
For they chose a site beside the channel leading into Lake Moeris in
Libya and there constructed their tomb of the finest stone, laying
down an oblong as the shape and a stade as the size of each
side, while in respect of carving and other works of craftsmanship
they left no room for their successors to surpass them.
one had entered the sacred enclosure, one found a temple surrounded
by columns, 40 to each side, and this building had a roof made of a
single stone, carved with panels and richly adorned with excellent
paintings. It contained memorials of the homeland of each of the
kings as well as of the temples and sacrifices carried out in it,
all skillfully worked in paintings of the greatest beauty. Generally
it is said that the king conceived their tomb on such an expensive
and prodigious scale that if they had not been deposed before its
completion, they would not have been able to give their successors
any opportunity to surpass them in architectural feats.202
there is the report of Strabo:
In addition to these things there is the edifice of the Labyrinth
which is a building quite equal to the Pyramids and nearby the tomb
of the king who built the Labyrinth. There is at the point where one
first enters the channel, about 30 or 40 stades along the way, a
flat trapezium-shaped site which contains both a village and a great
palace made up of many palaces equal in number to that of the nomes
in former times; for such is the number of peristyle courts which
lie contiguous with one another, all in one row and backing on one
wall, as though one had a long wall with the courts lying before it,
and the passages into the courts lie opposite the wall.
entrances there lie what might be called hidden chambers which are
long and many in number and have paths running through one another
which twist and turn, so that no one can enter or leave any court
without a guide. And the wonder of it is the roofs of each chambers
are made of single stones and the width of the hidden chambers is
spanned in the same way by monolithic beams of outstanding size; for
nowhere is wood or any other material included. And if one mounts
onto the roof, at no great height because the building has only one
story, it is possible to get a view of a plain of masonry made of
such stones, and, if one drops back down from there into the courts,
it is possible to see them lying there in row each supported by 27
monolithic pillars; the walls too are made up in stones of no less a
At the end of this building, which occupies an area of more than a
stade, stands the tomb, a pyramid on a oblong base, each side about
4 “plethora” in length and the height about the same; the name of
the man buried there was Imandes. The reason for making the courts
so many is said to be the fact that it was customary for all nomes
to gather there according to rank with their own priests and
priestesses, for the purpose of sacrifice, divine-offering, and
judgment on the most important matters.
And each of the nomes was
lodged in the court appointed to it. And above this city stands
Abydos, in which there is the Memnonium, a palace wonderfully
constructed of massive stonework in the same way as we have said the
Labyrinth was built, though the Memnonium differs in being simple in
202 Diodorus Siculus, op. cit., two passages in his
history, Book I, 61 and 66.
203 Strabo (ca. 64 BC - AD 19): Three
passages in his geography, Book 17, I, 3 and 37 and 42.
Pliny tells us still another version of the stories about this
Let us speak also of labyrinths, quite the most extraordinary works
on which men have spent their money, but not, as may be thought,
figments of the imagination. There still exists even now in Egypt in
the Heracleopolite Nome the one which was built first, according to
tradition 3,600 years ago by king Petesuchis or Tithois, though
Herodotus ascribes the whole work to Twelve Kings and Psammetichus,
the latest of them. Various reasons are given for building it.
Demoteles claims that it was the palace of Moteris, Lyceas the tomb
of Moeris, but the majority of writers take the view that it was
built as a temple to the Sun, and this is generally accepted.
rate, that Daedalus used this as the model for the Labyrinth which
he built in Crete is beyond doubt, but it is equally clear that he
imitated only 100th part of it which contains twisting paths and
passages which advance and retreat-all impossible to negotiate. The
reason for this is not that within a small compass it involves one
in mile upon mile of walking, as we see in tessellated floors or the
displays given by boys on the Campus, but that frequently doors are
buried in it to beguile the visitor into going forward and then
force him to return into the same winding paths.
This was the second
to be built after the Egyptian Labyrinth, the third being in Lemnos
and the fourth in Italy, all roofed with vaults of polished stone,
though the Egyptian specimen, to my considerable astonishment, has
its entrance and columns made of Parian marble, while the rest is of
Aswan granite, such masses being put together as time itself cannot
dissolve even with the help of the Heracleopolitans; for they have
regarded the building with extraordinary hatred.
It would be impossible to describe in detail the layout of that
building and its individual parts, since it is divided into regions
and administrative districts which are called nomes, each of the 21
nomes giving its names to one of the houses. A further reason is the
fact that it also contains temples of all the Gods of Egypt while,
in addition, Nemesis placed in the building’s 40 chapels many
pyramids of 40 ells each covering an area of 6 arourae with their
Men are already weary with traveling when they reach that
bewildering maze of paths; indeed, there are also lofty upper rooms
reached by ramps and porticoes from which one descends on stairways
which have 90 steps each; inside are columns of imperial porphyry,
images of the Gods, statues of kings and representations of
monsters. Certain of the halls are arranged in such way that as one
throws open the door there arises within a fearful noise of thunder;
moreover one passes through most of them in darkness. There are
again other massive buildings outside the wall of the Labyrinth;
they call them “the Wing”.
Then there are other subterranean
chambers made by excavating galleries in the soil. One person only
has done any repairs there-and they were few in number. He was Chaermon, the eunuch of king Necthebis, 500 years before Alexander
the Great. A tradition is also current that he supported the roofs
with beams of acacia wood boiled in oil, until squared stones could
be raised up into the vaults.204
204 Pliny (AD 23-79): One passage
in his natural history, Book 36, 13.
We seem to have a bit of a problem here. Notice that
us that Herodotus was wrong not only about who built the labyrinth,
but also about when it was built. Pliny dates it to almost four
thousand years before his own time. He also makes the most
interesting remark that the building was regarded with extraordinary
hatred. That would certainly be true of a structure that was
utilized for dreadful sacrifices.
Pliny mentions the mythical
labyrinth of Crete, though it is a certainty that the temple at
Knossos that was identified as the labyrinth by Arthur Evans was no
longer available for view in the time of Pliny. It seems that Pliny,
along with everyone else just took it for granted that the legends
of the labyrinth on Crete were the truth.
So it is that we have found that the earliest known written account
of the existence of labyrinths appears in the writings of the Greek
historian Herodotus in approximately 450 BC. He describes a great
labyrinth located in Egypt at the ancient site of Arsinoe on the
eastern bank of a large body of water, Lake Moeris. The labyrinth
was constructed in the style of a great compartmental palace with
3000 different chambers, 1500 of which were above ground and 1500
were below ground.
The foundation was approximately 1000 feet long x
800 feet long. He claimed that it was built by Ammenemes III in the
twelfth dynasty of the Old Kingdom in approximately 2300 BC. He
further said that its primary purpose was for burial, and many kings
were buried there. Pliny verified Herodotus’ account in his writings
on the four famous labyrinths of antiquity in approximately 50 AD.
The remains of the city of Arsinoe have been excavated, but a great
labyrinth to the extent of Herodotus’ description has never been
Flinders Petrie did extensive excavation of the city of Arsinoe in
1888, but he never discovered the fantastic site that Herodotus
described. Petrie found only a great bed of fragments which he
believed was the labyrinth. The body of Ammenemes III was supposedly
unearthed corroborating Herodotus. A sufficient quantity of the
original foundation was unearthed which handily allowed it to be
measured at 1000 feet X 800 feet which is exactly the dimension
quoted by Herodotus!
That it was definitely a labyrinth could not be
More recently, Egyptologists have decided that the
so-called “pyramid of Hawara” is the famous Egyptian labyrinth, but
that makes no sense at all. Herodotus, Diodorus, Strabo and
all describe so marvelous a structure that we are hard put to not
think that there is truth behind what they were describing. The
various propositions for what must be the “remains” of the structure
simply do not fit the descriptions. And, while we can have some
doubts about the accuracy of the history ascribed to the monument by
the various ancient authors, depending on who gave them their
information, it’s difficult to doubt that they either saw it
themselves, or had direct information.
Modern experts suggest that “Lake Moeris” is really Lake Qarun, the
third largest lake in Egypt, which is located in Faiyyum. If so, we
wonder why there are no remains of this labyrinth which Pliny tells
us was constructed of,
“Parian marble, while the rest is of Aswan
granite, such masses being put together as time itself cannot
dissolve even with the help of the Heracleopolitans; for they have
regarded the building with extraordinary hatred”.
Of course, this last may provide a clue: if the building was so
hated, it is altogether possible that it was deliberately destroyed,
cut to pieces, and carried away block by block.
The bottom line seems to be that the legend of the labyrinth
containing a horrible creature is based on the Egyptian labyrinth.
The fact that the Cretans became “experts” in some sort of funerary
cult, only created a fertile ground for transferring this legend to
Crete. In fact, the Cretans may be closely related to the original
Egyptians, the ones who were responsible for the building of the
pyramids, the Sphinx, and other techno marvels.
We notice a most
peculiar series of events in regard to Egyptian “history”, that may
offer some clues:
The generally accepted sequence of Egyptian historical events tells
us that a king from “upper Egypt” - that is, the arid highlands -
named Narmer, Menes, or Aha, (who may have been separate
individuals), defeated the King of Northern, or Lower Egypt, and
thereby unified the two lands. This unification is commemorated in
the famous Narmer Palette, which shows the ubiquitous “head smiting”
scene, a euphemism for conquest.
According to Manetho, Menes/Narmer came from the Thinite province in
Upper Egypt and, whether unification was achieved by military of
peaceful means is uncertain, though head smiting seems to indicate
According to tradition, Menes founded Memphis on an island in the
Nile, conducted raids against the Nubians, and extended his power as
far as the first cataract. He sent ambassadors to Canaan and Byblos
in Phoenicia; he founded the city of Crocodilopolis and built the
first temple to the God Ptah, who Herodotus and others say was
Hephaestus, the volcano/fire God.
As a sidebar, skipping over the list and details of what is known
via archaeology and conjectured via ignorance, we come to the reign
of Peribsen in the so-called second dynasty. Peribsen was the fourth
king of that line and some experts opine that he was actually not
the legitimate heir of Nintejer, the king before him, but that he
was an outsider who instigated a coup against Pharaoh Nintejer.
Peribsen used the nomen “Seth” in his titles. Apparently, this
signified sweeping political changes since the serekhs bearing the
royal names are not surmounted by Horus anymore, but by his
religious rival, Set, who became the primary royal patron deity of
Here we discover a most interesting point in history.
claiming the title of the rival of Horus. Egyptologists admit that
the events of the second dynasty are extremely uncertain, if not the
most uncertain in Egyptian history. It just so happens that, right
around the time of the Peribsen “rebellion”, the Cretan civilization
suddenly appeared in the Mediterranean.
We also note the most
curious fact that, based on the years assigned to the kings by Manetho, though we cannot be certain of the year in our own calendar
system on which to affix these dates, the period between the
unification by Narmer and the Peribsen rebellion happens to be right
at 430 years - the period of slavery in Egypt claimed by the Jews.
It is curious to find this “unification” of Egypt, the building of a
great city and temple in Egypt, and a rebellion 430 years later.
it happens, it was precisely at this moment in time that a new group
of people appeared on the island of Crete.
Tacitus tells us:
Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who
settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn
was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this
is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called
Ida; the neighboring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a
barbarous lengthening of the national name.205
205 Herodotus, The Histories, Book V, c. 110 CE
Is this an ancient
tradition that was carried to Crete by refugees from Egypt, and
then, at the time of the eruption of the volcano Santorini, was
carried again to Palestine along with the terrifying images of death
and destruction? In the myths of the labyrinth, the most famous of
Daedalus’ architectural feats, it is said that King Minos imprisoned
him in the labyrinth for helping Theseus escape.
Daedalus and his
son escaped by fashioning wings made of feathers and wax, though his
son is killed by falling into the sea when the wax melts and the
feathers begin to fall out. It was said that Daedalus fled to
Sicily. Again we make note of the curious similarity of the story of
Minos and his great architect, Daedalus, and Solomon and his great
architect Hiram Abiff. We see in the story of Menes/Narmer not
merely a strong resemblance, but we see certain historical
developments that, even though not specified, point us in the
direction of thinking that the myth of Theseus, Ariadne, and
Daedalus and the Minotaur in the labyrinth, actually relate to Menes
and his labyrinth, and a rebellion 430 years after a “unification”
and the building of a labyrinth.
It is most curious to find this ancient link between Crete and Egypt
and the Jews, the purported possessors of the famous Ark of the
Covenant, most especially when we consider the issue of the
labyrinth and the Minotaur. Was the Labyrinth the real “Temple of
Solomon”? We find another clue in the writings of our old gadabout
recorder of all gossip, legends, and discombobulated history,
Herodotus. Keep in mind that Herodotus was writing down what he was
told and what he could get from inquiry.
Indeed, the history had
already been “mythicized”, and different kings had been assimilated
to the myth according to the pattern discovered by Eliade and
friends, so keep that in mind as you read this passage:
Apries having thus been overthrown, Amasis became king, being of the
district of Saïs, and the name of the city whence he was is Siuph.
Now at the first the Egyptians despised Amasis and held him in no
great regard, because he had been a man of the people and was of no
distinguished family; but afterwards Amasis won them over to himself
by wisdom and not willfulness.
First in Saïs he built and completed for Athene a temple-gateway
which is a great
marvel, and he far surpassed herein all who had done the like
before, both in regard
to height and greatness, so large are the stones and of such
quality. Then secondly
he dedicated great colossal statues and man-headed sphinxes very
large, and for
restoration he brought other stones of monstrous size. Some of these
he caused to
be brought from the stone-quarries which are opposite Memphis,
others of very great size from the city of Elephantine, distant a
voyage of not less than twenty days from Saïs: and of them all I
marvel most at this, namely a monolith chamber which he brought from
the city of Elephantine; and they were three years engaged in
bringing this, and two thousand men were appointed to convey it, who
all were of the class of boatmen.
Moreover Amasis became a lover of the Hellenes; and besides other
proofs of friendship which he gave to several among them, he also
granted the city of Naucratis for those of them who came to Egypt to
dwell in; and to those who did not desire to stay, but who made
voyages thither, he granted portions of land to set up altars and
make sacred enclosures for their Gods.
Also with the people of Kyrene Amasis made an agreement for
friendship and alliance; and he resolved too to marry a wife from
thence, whether because he desired to have a wife of Hellenic race,
or apart from that, on account of friendship for the people of
Kyrene: however that may be, he married, some say the daughter of
Battos, others of Arkesilaos, and others of Critobulos, a man of
repute among the citizens; and her name was Ladike.206
206 Herodotus, The Histories, Book II,
suddenly reminded of the Hyperborean girls who brought offerings to
Delos, one of whom was named Laodike.
What is more, it brings to
mind the journey of the great Queen of Sheba who heard of the fame
of Solomon and came, bearing gifts, to see for herself.
The Secret of Crete
For centuries, bards in the marketplaces of the Mediterranean
recited the stories of the Minotaur. Scholars of later centuries
considered them to be fable and fantasy. The ideas of human
sacrifice and grotesque creatures were reinterpreted as symbolic
accounts of how higher Greek culture overcame the bloody bull cult
of the ancient Cretans. And so the matter was interpreted until
Arthur Evans discovered and excavated the “palace” at Knossos, a few
miles south of the capital of Crete, Herakleion. (We note that Pliny
mentions residents of an Egyptian city Heracleopolis.)
Nevertheless, Arthur Evans banished the myth of the Minotaur with
his discovery. From the remains of twelve hundred deviously
interconnected rooms, stairways, corridors, warehouses, colonnaded
halls and cellars grouped around an interior court, and from the
arrangements of wall paintings showing bull games, animal scenes,
processions and portraits, Evans reconstructed the Minoan culture
for the breathless world. Based upon Evan’s analyses, the Greek
bards who said such nasty things about the Cretans were all a bunch
The innumerable battles between Theseus and the
Minotaur portrayed on classical vases, murals, mosaics, reliefs,
gems, and coins, were obviously based on pure imagination. There
were, of course, some criticisms of Evans’ reconstruction, but by
and large, no one really doubted that the excavated labyrinth at
Knossos was, indeed, the home of the Cretan royal family - a palace.
Not only that, but the world of Arthur Evans’ time was amazed at the
high culture of the Minoans. They had drainage systems, bathrooms,
frescoes of women in striking toilettes that were actually similar
to the styles at the time of the discovery - bared breasts and long
The women of Knossos wore make-up and lived in country
estates that were undefended - a sign of gracious living - as
opposed to the gloomy citadels of the later Greeks. Clearly the
Minoans lived in a land flowing with milk and honey and lived a
carefree life devoted to sports, art, and love in the sunny kingdom
of Minos, a veritable Solomon with his genius architect, Daedalus.
There was only one serious dissenter to the universal acceptance of
the gay lifestyle of those amazing Minoans: Oswald Spengler.
book World History of the Second Millennium BC, published in 1935, Spengler speculated on the archaeological finds of Crete. He noted
the absence of any protecting walls around ancient Cretan palaces
and country estates; he noted the pictures of bulls so reminiscent
of the ancient Minotaur legend; he noted a very peculiar “king’s
throne” in the Palace of Knossos, which in his view, would have been
more suitable “for a votive image of a priest’s mummy”.
And then he
“were the ‘palaces’ of Knossos and Phaistos temples of the
dead, sanctuaries of a powerful cult of the hereafter? I do not wish
to make such an assertion, for I cannot prove it, but the question
seems to me worthy of serious consideration”.
But such a suggestion was ignored.
According to the experts, the position of Crete was particularly
favorable for the purported Minoan domination of the sea, and for
growth and development of their wonderful civilization. It was
claimed to be the “crossroads”, linking three continents, and all
the racial and cultural elements of Europe, Asia and Africa met and
mingled in the melting pot of Crete. It was this mingling that
produced such a marvelous new way of life, a new philosophy, new
art, and the “freshness, charm and variety” that enchanted the
The Minoan Kingdom was destroyed by the eruption of the terrible
volcano of Santorini, which we will discuss further on in some
detail, and after that, none of the Minoan “palaces” was ever
re-inhabited. It seems that the original Minoans fled, never to
return, and afterward, the purely Greek period of Crete began with
the arrival of waves of Dorians.
According to Homer, Idomensus, grandson of the ruler of Knossos,
fought side by side with the Achaeans against the Trojans. In the
famous catalogue of ships in The Iliad, the Cretans are listed along
with the rest of the Achaeans and not as foreign auxiliaries. There
is absolutely no indication that the Cretans are anything other than Danaans, which means Achaeans or Greeks.
Before the discoveries of
Arthur Evans, there was no indication that the Minoans had not been
Greeks. But after his excavations, such an idea could no longer hold
sway. They were clearly not Greeks.
The question in the minds of
everyone is: who were these Minoans, really, and where did they go?
From the very beginning of his excavations, the finds at Knossos
differed so fundamentally from the art and artifacts of classical
Greece that there was simply no comparison. The russet skin color of
the Minoan men on the frescoes in the Palace of Knossos was a
distinct sign of their alien nature to the Greeks. They were not
fair-haired Achaeans, but brown skinned, dark-haired tribes. Evans
found no temples, no large sculpture, no amphitheaters with seats,
and no inscriptions telling the deeds of the Gods and great men, not
even any familiar characters of the Greek pantheons.
Instead, Evans found strange columns that tapered toward the bottom,
and architecture like no other in its shapes and arrangement of
space. He found magazines full of gigantic jars - pithoi - deposits
of clay tablets of endless statistical notations devoid of any
historical character or mythological references. He found curious
clay idols of women with bared breasts holding serpents. The
resemblances to finds at Mycenae and Tiryns in the Peloponnesus have
prompted some experts to think that the lords of the citadels of
Mycenae and Tiryns had visited Crete. The frescoes of women in
Tiryns, with long black hair, exposed bosoms and slender waists; the
dolphins, lotus blossoms and spiral motifs; and especially the
characteristic Cretan double shields plainly showed the hand of a
Knossos presented no clear parallel to other known cultures of the
eastern Mediterranean. The Minoans were something quite “other”. The
only possible comparison in terms of elegance of lifestyle was
either Greece or Egypt. But the people who lived at Knossos were
quite different from either of them. Knossos had no mummies, no
pyramids, no sphinxes or obelisks, no monumental statues of Gods or
pharaohs, no walls filled with hieroglyphs glorifying their rulers
and their deeds.
Arthur Evans thought that something must have prevented a complete
cultural and civilizational exchange. He came to believe that the
inhabitants of Knossos had attained a height of civilization unique
for the Middle to Late Bronze Age, with technical devices at their
disposal that seemed strikingly modern. Again the question was
asked: who were they and where did they go? What happened to the
In 1974, Hans Georg Wunderlich, Professor of Geology and
Paleontology at Stuttgart University, published The Secret of Crete.
This book was the result of many observations he had made from a
“geologists” point of view while visiting Crete. There were many
puzzling facts about the strange 1200 room “palace”.
One thing his
geologist’s eye noticed immediately was that the steps of the
“palace” were made of soft alabaster, but were not worn! There were
many doorways, but stone slabs sealed them off. There were
“bathtubs” equipped with drain holes, but no drainpipes! He found
row after row of storage vessels, but no kitchen. The list goes on,
and the reader is encouraged to read his book for the lengthy
Wunderlich quotes the account of traveller Thomas Munster in Crete:
What about the palace’s access to light, air and sun? Where, for
example, are the big windows without which we can scarcely imagine
elegant living? When you look closer you see, to be sure, that the
royal palace has open loggias, colonnaded halls, roofed over courts,
but that there are scarcely any windows.
A good many rooms are so
completely boxed in within the complex structure that they do not even border on an outside wall.
There is something very odd about the idea of constructing a
luxurious building in whose interior people would necessarily feel
as if they were inside a cave. Yet they had the means to build in
totally modern windows, perhaps even glazed windows.
In a state of devastation the place must have looked like a tangle
of artificial caves in which nobody could find his way about… and
the impression of mystery, vastness and confusion must have been
No materials were carried away from Knossos to be used for peasant
villages… The place was avoided with superstitious fear. What
exactly happened, why Knossos was avoided like the site of a gallows
or a witches’ dancing floor, remains to be clarified.207
207 Munster, quoted
by Wunderlich, The Secret of Crete, (New York: Macmillan 1974) p.
In the end, Wunderlich came to the realization, based on the objective evidence,
that the “palace” of King Minos, so identified by Evans, was nothing
but a necropolis. It had never been intended for the living, but was
a place where a powerful cult of the dead practiced elaborate
sacrifices, burial rites, and ritual games of death.
that the legend of Crete was essentially accurate, and that legend
said that it was not a “home to a wise sovereign who fostered arts
and sports”, but that it was a sinister place belonging entirely to
the underworld and a devouring God. In other words, it had the
equivalent reputation among the civilizations of the Mediterranean
that a graveyard and mausoleum have in our own society. Just as our
society has a tendency to tell “ghost stories around the campfire”,
about terrifying apparitions of the dead in our own cemeteries, or
“cities of the dead”, so were similar tales told about Crete, where
the only living inhabitants were the “resident undertakers”, the
“embalmers”, and experts on death and the afterlife.
need defensive walls because it was the place that the other cities
and countries brought their dead for “cult care”. It may also have
been the site of human sacrifice for cult reasons as well.
Wunderlich wrote his own observations:
I had visited the Minoan sites to explore the traces of early
geological catastrophes, but what I found were curious
contradictions. Were the excavated labyrinthine complexes really the
palatial residences of glorious kings, of the legendary Minos and
his brothers Sarpedon and Rhadamanthys? In fact, could these places
be regarded as residences at all?
My geological observations argued
against any such assumption. Places of worship, shrines, sanctified
earth, yes, but not places of human settlement. Comparison with
other Mediterranean cultures suggested a cult of the dead […] that
would mean, however, that Minoan culture, to the extent that we now
know it, was almost entirely a funerary cult.208
In dealing with the issue of what happened to the Minoans,
Wunderlich points out that it is a mistake to think that just
because an institution comes to an end, and the buildings of a
civilization are destroyed, that it means an end to the peoples
themselves. Institutions end when they no longer have a “living
function”. In light of the major destruction of the area by the
cataclysmic eruption of Santorini, it is far more likely, as
Wunderlich points out, that there was a “change in function”, and an
“abandonment of traditional ideas and modes of behavior”.
words, if a funerary cult is destroyed cataclysmically, it is
entirely likely that the practitioners came to the conclusion that
they needed a change of philosophy and were “born again” into a new
and different cult that was considered to be less likely to evoke
such disastrous responses from the “Gods”. And, in point of fact,
that seems to be what happened.
Given all the evidence presented by Wunderlich, we can no longer
think of Crete as an anomaly, an isolated civilization in the
Mediterranean. Rather, we come to the rather startling realization
that Crete did have an enormous role in the context of those times.
Many connections are drawn between the Minoans and Etruria,
Mesopotamia, Egypt and Greece.
More than this, Wunderlich marshals a
great body of evidence to show that the Cretan civilization was born
from Egypt and interacted with Egypt in a long relationship.
The Minoans were a dark, elegant people of mysterious origin. Even
their ancient name is unknown; they were given the name Minoans by a
modern-day British archaeologist, Arthur Evans, who derived it from
Greek mythology. [...]209 About 3200 BC, a large number of newcomers
reached southern Crete. Their religious symbols - the trident, the
double axe, and the shield shaped like the numeral 8 - were those of
the Delta tribes of Lower Egypt.
The Libyan Goddess, with her spear,
snake, spindle, and goatskin bib, came with them, and she remained
one of their chief deities. Other evidence of the newcomers’
Egyptian or Libyan origin was the soldiers’ custom of training their
hair in a long lock curled over one shoulder and their use of a
peculiarly shaped loincloth instead of a kilt. It seems likely that
these people may have been fleeing from Menes‘ conquest of Lower
Egypt. They mixed with the Neolithic Cretans of the mountains to
form the Cretan civilization.210
209 Colon, Thuborn, The
Ancient Mariners, (Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books 1981) p.
210 Hayes, pp. 73-74.
Returning to our tracking of the
story of the labyrinth, the hero of the story, Prince Theseus of
Athens, volunteered to become one of the intended victims.
the priestess Ariadne fell in love with him and helped him by giving
him a ball of golden thread. He unraveled this as he penetrated to
the heart of the maze, where he slew the Minotaur and was able to
find his way out and escape.
Afterwards, Theseus sailed away from
Crete with Ariadne and the other Athenian youths and maidens who had been
held captive in the labyrinth, and arrived at Delos. There he set up
a shrine to Aphrodite, and he and his companions executed a dance
which imitated the winding twists and turns of the labyrinth, which
included weaving, turning movements to complex rhythms. It is known
that locals performed a version of this dance until fairly recent
This connection of the myth of Theseus and Ariadne to the island of
Delos brings us again back to the mysterious offerings that were
sent from the Hyperboreans to the Delians, and the story of the four
Hyperborean girls who never returned to their country, Hyperoche and
Laodike, Opis and Arge, accompanied by five men who Herodotus tells
us were later called “Perphereës”. We see here a connection to the
myth of the Athenian youths and maidens sent as tribute to Minos. We
also see a connection to several other myths that all seem to be
different versions of the same story that has received various
treatments according to the “mythicization” principle. We are
interested in the common elements so as to be able to determine the
The majority of experts who write about the labyrinth, tell us that
the plan and meaning of the maze clearly originated in Egypt, where
it was the scene of the religious dramas involving killing the
God-king in the form of a bull. They further tell us that the
sacrifice was only token, and that a divine bull was substituted for
the king in the culmination of several days of ritual dance, drama
and combat performed in a labyrinth. A similar cult is said to be at
the root of the Cretan labyrinth myth. The “bull of Minos” would be
the representative of the kingship and power of Minos; and Theseus,
by killing the bull and taking the king’s daughter, was claiming the
Indeed, such a solution would explain why bull, king and labyrinth
occur together in both Crete and Egypt, but what it does not explain
is the labyrinth itself and why the same design is found all over
the world. Most scholars of ancient history and archaeology are
powerfully influenced by the theories of Egyptology which posit that
all civilizations diffused from ancient Egypt, or from Mesopotamia,
at least. However, the sheer volume of physical evidence suggests
that this is not the case.
The Egyptian labyrinths were always composed of straight lines, and
abstract mazes on seals were usually made up of square fret
patterns. While Cretan
coins from classical times often show labyrinths, some of which are
Egyptian fretwork kind, most of them show a maze of a very different
- the square or rounded spiral design - the Greek meander - of
European tradition, which is never found in Egypt.
The spiraling maze consists of a series of interlocking concentric
bands, usually seven in number, with a straight line of exit running
from the center to the base. This is the form of nearly all the
ancient mazes of Europe, including those known to have been focal
points of nature religions and folk activity such as festivals,
dancing, dramas and games.
These designs are known as Troy towns.
Spiral mazes with names that are obviously derived from the word
“Troy” are found in Wales, Scotland, Ireland, England, Italy,
Germany, Sweden, Norway and Russia. In short, there is absolutely
nothing Egyptian about the Troy mazes, and there is every reason to
believe that they are indigenous to the megalithic cultures, which
were independent developments from the civilizations of the Near
But in the stories of the Hyperborean girls, the myths of Theseus,
as well as several other myths we are going to examine, we find two
independent aspects of the maze puzzle meeting and interacting, and
what they have in common is, in our opinion, ancient technology - a
device that may have been at the center of the dance of the God at
Stonehenge, utilized to manipulate gravity, space and time.
similar powers were available to the Egyptians seems to be evident,
but it is also clear that their perception of the world, their
reaction to it, and their utilization of this technology was quite
In the stories of the Egyptian labyrinth, the object at the center
was a terrible, devouring power. In the story of the Hyperboreans,
the dance of the God was a celebration of life, of bounty, of
victory over the serpent. The “spear-armed Maruts” danced and
brought forth baskets of bountiful blessings, materializing from the
waves of the great Star Goddess, the Enthroned Queen.
happened. Something terrible, and whether or not we discover that
any sort of “object” was at the center of the labyrinth, we believe
that our investigations will lead us to the knowledge of the Ark.
And so far, even if it left Egypt, it does not seem to have made it
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