THREE KINDS OF ELECTROMAGNETICS
There are actually three kinds -- or three views -- of EM. These are (1) the classical view, (2) the quantum mechanical view, and (3) the scalar EM or electrogravitational view.
In the classical view, the potentials are just mathematical conveniences and do not physically exist. The real causative agents are the force fields, and there is no longer any electromagnetics going on if the force fields reduce to zero. Further, the ideas of "charge" and "charged mass" have been made erroneously synonymous.
Of course the classical view was formed from the idea of a thin material ether, with electricity as a thin fluid, long before the discovery of the electron. Since most earlier scientists studied
string waves and these are transverse, the EM wave was modeled as a transverse wave. Also, detection equipment actually detected transverse waves. The role of electron spin and drift velocity, which would have shown that force-field-causing EM waves in the vacuum could only be longitudinal, was not yet discovered. Maxwell’s equations and the classical approach became so engrained that the basic derivations were never corrected for more modern discoveries.
The quantum mechanical view, on the other hand, regards the potentials as the real physical actants, and the force fields are just effects derived from the potentials by differentiating operators. Classically-oriented physicists have adamantly opposed this foundations requirement of QM because it would require nearly a complete redo of EM theory. It would also rather drastically change our ideas of physical reality. For years a controversy has raged around the Aharonov-Bohm effect (which demonstrates the reality of the potentials, among other things). Only this year -- 1986 -- have most physicists finally accepted the AB effect with its implications (see Physics Today, Jan. 86). However, no changes have yet been made to EM theory and the basic classical approach to electrical physics and engineering.
Yet even the QM view is flawed, since it has not examined the structure of EM forces which sum to a vector zero. Such a system produces stress, and if the summation is in the vacuum itself, it produces stress of vacuum/spacetime. Rigorously, this is a gravitational effect, and the energies of the various EM components in the local region are locked into an artificial potential. From general relativity, this type of potential where the energy density of vacuum is altered is a gravitational potential. From Kaluza-Klein unified theory, it is at least a 5-dimensiona1 gravitational potential.
If the individual force vector components of the vector zero are varying in magnitude -- say, all in phase -- then they produce a gravitational wave. The energy density of the local vacuum is being rhythmically varied. Call such an EM, wave a scalar EM wave, where, by "scalar" we imply that, to an external observer, the EM force vector resultants are identically zero, but the local gravitational potential of the wave is varying. Thus this is an electrogravitational wave, and vector zeroing of EM force fields constitutes a means of changing EM field energy into G-field energy. On the other hand, by breaking up the coherence of the zero-vector summation of the EM forces, nonzero EM resultants are recovered, constituting the change of gravitational energy into EM energy.
A simple means to break zero-summed coherence is by interference of two or more such zero-vector waves.
In this third view of EM, action at a distance is easily possible, and is the norm rather than the exception. In addition, a new kind of resonance -- scalar resonance -- exists. The scalar EM wave does not interact with orbital electrons, but rather with the interior of the nuclei of atoms. Thus the new scalar EM resonance is between nuclei and within nuclei.