TYPE OF POTENTIAL DEPENDS ON THE PARTICLE(S)

SLIDE 14

Now one can see that, by choosing the type or class of virtual particle, and looking at its potential or stress in the vacuum, one can have many kinds of "potentials" existing in the overall "gravitational potential" of vacuum spacetime.

For example, the stress of the virtual photon flux (which is what causes electrical charge) is called "electrostatic scalar potential."*

We can choose any other class of virtual particle we wish, and there exists a potential (and "change") for it. There are quark potentials, neutrinic potentials, etc.

Indeed, one of the reasons for ignoring Kaluza unified theory for so long was that it predicts a great many types of potentials and fields which have never been observed and which are unknown. Approximations which neglected all these mysterious, and unknown fields gave erroneous results. Perplexed physicists, seeking to simplify matters, simply turned away from it in frustration. They returned to it in the mid-70ís when it appeared that 11-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory possibly offered a complete unified theory.

Actually, the diversity of new fields in Kaluza theory was its strength not its weakness. That they are presently unobservable and undetectable is beside the point. Neither is time directly observable; however, we have worked out handy procedures and measurements of spatial quantities which allow us to infer time. We have not just tried to drop it from physics!

And indeed the Kaluza theory is consistent with experiment when the higher fields are included. The message is, we must work out "clocks" for these new potentials and fields, so that they can be inferred with at least some degree of precision

* The character of movement also determines the type of potential. The longitudinal (radial) movement of the virtual photon flux is implied in electrostatic scalar potential. The swirl (tangential) component of this flux might be taken as the magnetostatic scalar potential -- a magnetic pole -- when the cw and ccw components of the swirl balance, but the sum of their absolute values differs from the sum of the absolute values of the corresponding tangential components in the swirl flux of the local ambient vacuum. If this swirl stress is higher than the vacuum swirl stress, this constitutes a north magnetic pole. If lower, it constitutes a south magnetic pole. If there is a prevalence of direction (cw or ccw) in the swirl (i.e., one component exceeds the other), this corresponds to the magnetic vector potential (the A-field) when the A-field is freed from the magnetic force field (B-field) -- i.e., when A-field is freed from its x operator in the equation xA = B. The bleed-off of the excess swirl stress from the north magnetic pole to the deficient swirl stress of the south magnetic pole constitutes the magnetic force field, B -- usually referred to simply as the "magnetic field".

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