A tile, a tree, and a coat of mail. By the fueros of Biscay the eldest son inherited all the property, leaving to the other brothers only the mail as a knight: a tree, to signify, no doubt, the deeply-rooted family stock of nobility, and a tile, as representing the family house. P. 249.
Achular. A mountain of Guipuzcoa, close to Andoain. There is another of the same name in the valley of Lerin, in Navarre. P. 206.
Aitz-belz. The black cliff. By this name is known a mountain of Mendaro, in which there is a chasm so deep that the people believe that it ends in the bottomless pit of hell. P. 250.
Aitzgorri. Mountain of Guipuzcoa: a continuation of Aloña. It rises 1·800 metres above the level of the sea. P. 228.
Aloña. A mountain of Guipuzcoa, at whose southerly base is situated the magnificent town of Oñate, where, for a long time during the seven years' civil war, the Infante Don Carlos de Bourbon, uncle of Isabella II., held his court. P. 233.
Amboto. A very high cliff situated on the frontiers of Guipuzcoa, Alava, and Biscay. P. 228.
Aquelarre. A word composed of larre, pasture land, and Aquerra, buck goat; hence the word Aquelarre signifies the pasture land of the goat. It is well known that this animal figures in all the conventicles of witches as representing the Evil One. P. 19.
Aránzan, zu. Literally, "You, in a thorn?" P. 234.
Aránzanzu, Convent of. Situated on the south-west of the Monte Aloña. The convent was under the invocation of Our Lady of Aránzanzu, and was inhabited by the friars of the Order of St. Francis. The situation of this convent was very remarkable. It was cast, so to say, on the highest point and most rugged and bare of the mountain, on the height of a steep declivity, and from this may be inferred the daring and solidity of that capricious construction, Throughout the three Basque provinces the holy image of Our Lady of Aránzanzu was very famous, and the devotion of the people for it, even in our days, very general. During the month of May it is visited by numerous pilgrimages, and nothing more fantastic can be imagined than the effect produced by the glare of the fires at night, which are lit by the multitudes encamped on the mountain, as they are unable to
find accommodation for all in the spacious inns close to the convent, and to listen to the echoes of the magnificent organ, instrumental orchestra, and large choir of voices, as they celebrate the praises of the Virgin and intoned the prayers. The convent was only visible at a distance of about fifty metres. I am sorry to add that this singular construction was set fire to by order of General Rodil, during the civil war against Don Carlos--a deed of barbarism which will always merit reprehension and condemnation. P. 234.
Arguiduna. Fatuous fire, or Will-o'-the-Wisp. P. 52.
Articuza. Palace and stronghold close to the shores of that name. They are situated in the centre of the mountains of Goizueta, ten kilometres from the town, and surrounded by dense woods and forests. P. 123.
Asté, Sem, Nestos, and Heas. Mountainous and deserted places in the centre of the Pyrenees. P. 223.
Astiya. A Basque word which is equal to "Witch," or one professing to possess the art of divination, or of casting spells or charms over people. P. 248.
Bardena Real. A deserted and plain cut through by rocks and broken boulders, extending from the junction of the rivers Ebro and Aragon to within two kilometres beyond the frontier of the ancient kingdom of Aragon, a distance comprehending many kilometres. P. 107.
Basso-jaun. Literally translated it signifies the Lord of the Woods. The superstitious imagination of the Basques depicts him as a horrible monster in human form, covered with hair, and having nails long and hard as those
of a wild boar. It is supposed to reside in the deepest part of the woods, and occasionally it appears at the mouths of caverns and in mountain torrents. Very curious are the details which are given concerning this popular belief, by M. Michel, in his work entitled "Le Pais Basque," p. 154. P. 3, and p. 17 of Introduction.
Begoña. The church of Begoña stands in the neighbourhood of Bilbao, on the eminence of Artagan, which overlooks the town.. It is one of the most renowned temples of these provinces. The present temple was constructed at the commencement of the sixteenth century, but from time immemorial the Virgin Mary has been venerated there under the invocation of Santa Maria de Begoña. Tradition tells us that its miraculous image appeared on that spot, and, on endeavouring to erect a church on the summit of the mountain, they went in procession to conduct the image to the place where they intended to build the edifice, but they heard a mysterious voice which said, Bego-oña ("Keep still"), and from this voice was the name given of Begoña. P. 170.
Benzozia. The Venus of chaste love of the primitive Basques. P. 208.
Berderiz. A mountain situated at two kilometres from the town of Irurita, in the valley of Baztan. P. 220.
Bertizarana, Baztan, Aezcoa, Erro, RONCAL. Valleys of Navarre, on the frontiers of France. The three first are narrow and surrounded by very high mountains. P. 221.
Cadagüa. This is the most powerful river of Biscay, after that of Ibaizabal. It has its origin in the highest part of the
vale of Mena, which anciently belonged to Biscay, and at the present day to Burgos. It flows along the Encartaciones of Biscay, and joins the Ibaizabal about a league below Bilbao. P. 166.
Cahella, Belaya, Ahaide. High and very luxuriant mountains, close to the valley of Roncal, in Navarre. P. 225.
Canigou. A high and inaccessible mountain of the French Pyrenees; part corresponds to Spain. P. 208.
Cannas. A celebrated battle gained by Hannibal against the Romans. A vanguard of the Carthaginian army which decided the victory was composed of Basque auxiliaries. P. 230.
Cantabrians. A people of Hispana Tarraconeza, between the Pyrenees and the Ocean, inhabiting Navarre, Biscay, Alava, and Guipuzcoa. P. 154.
Capusay. A sort of dalmatic of very thick cloth furnished with a hood. P. 24.
Clemencia Isaura. A lady of rank descended from the nobles of Tolosa. She lived in the fifteenth century. It was she who revived in that city the famous floral games, which had fallen into disuse for more than a century, and she left at her death, in 1513, a considerable sum for defraying the expenses of these poetic tournaments. P. 210.
Covadonga, Navas, and Salado. Three famous sanguinary battles, in which the Moors were routed: in these the Basque legions took an active part. P. 230.
Dalmatic. A very rich robe embroidered with gold spangles, worn over tunics of white wool on great festivals by the ancient Euscaros in olden times. This dalmatic was used
as a sign of authority. The shape of this robe is exactly as the vestments worn during High Mass by the officiating deacon and sub-deacon, with the sole difference that the dalmatic has a hood. The "capusay" of the shepherds and country people of our time, worn in the Basque country, is an exact copy of that very ancient robe. P. 237.
Durango. Principal town of Biscay. P. 229.
Echeco-jauna. The head of the family, proprietor, &c. Pp. 127 and 155.
Elzupel, Otsobide, Hernio, Aitzgorri. Mountains. The two first belong to Navarre, and the third to Guipuzcoa. P. 221.
Embrun. A cistern or reservoir in Palestine, much renowned in the time of the Crusaders. P. 211.
Eskaldunac. Some authors write it Escualdunac (from escua, hand, alde, right, dunac, those who have), a name which the Biscayans, or Basque people, give to themselves. In their dialect they call themselves Euskarians. This dialect, the wise Humboldt considered, was the most remarkable language of all he was acquainted with. P. 156.
Esquiroz. A mountain situated in Navarre, on the confines of Bardena Real. P. 206.
Euscuara, or Euscara. The name given by the Basque to those who speak it. See Essay on the Basque Language, by M. Julien Vinson, in "Basque Legends," by the Rev. Wentworth Webster. P. 229.
Five Towns of Aragon. A group composed of the towns of Sos, Sadava, Uncastillo, Tauste, and Egea--all situated on the frontiers of Aragon and Navarre, to the extreme of the . Pyrenees. P. 206.
Gara-paita. The collecting of the brake fern. This is a rustic agricultural work in which all the neighbours and relatives join the landowner. It generally lasts several days, and each evening, when the day's labour is over, the young people amuse themselves with music, dancing, and love-making; while the old people spend the time in games, or recounting tales or ballads. In this way they convert what would otherwise be a laborious work into a regular country feast. P. 248.
Gorbea. A mountain of Alava, which overlooks the plain upon which stands the city of Vitoria. P. 228.
Guernica, Arriaga, and Guerekiz. The three camps where in ancient times were gathered together the bill-zaars, or meetings of the ancients. The first was in Alava, the second in Biscay, and the third in Guipuzcoa. P. 228.
Guernicáco Arbola. The Tree of Guernica. This is one of the patriotic songs dedicated to the tree of Basque liberties, which is close to the town of Guernica, in Biscay. The actual tree is nearly a century old, since it was only thirty years old when its predecessor fell down from old age in 1811, and that one numbered more than three hundred years when it fell. Its trunk, says Iturriza, at the end of last century, was fifteen feet in circumference. The origin of this symbolical tree of the Basque liberties dates back to the origin of the Biscayan society. The statute tree is perpetuated like the Euskarian family, and is succeeded by its scions. The general juntas are materially inaugurated under the tree, and are continued in the juridical church of Santa Maria la Antigua,
placed also materially under the shadow of the statute oak. The actual tree is robust and beautiful, notwithstanding that it was greatly injured in 1830 or 1850 by the erection of the building intended for the general archive of the province. The tree which is to substitute the present one was planted a few years ago. Poetry and oratory have many times enthusiastically saluted the Tree of Guernica. The philosopher of Geneva sent it his blessing. Tallien saluted it in the midst of the French Convention, and many Spanish poets have written charming odes to the tree. The lords of Biscay took their oaths seated on a stone bench placed at the foot of the tree. It was on that spot that the Catholic Kings Ferdinand and Isabella sat, as also other monarchs. There is a patriotic song dedicated to the tree, and runs as follows
El Arbol de Guernica
Y entre los vascongados
Amado de todos.
Propaga y estiende
tu fruto por el mundo
Nosotros te adoramos
Ha cerca de mil años.
Segun se dice
que Dios plantó,
El Arbol de Guernica.
porque si ahora
Somos completamente perdidos.p. 269
Si procede bien
el Congreso de Vizcaya.
Las cuatro tomaremos
parte en tu sosten
para que viva en paz
el pueblo vascongado.
Y para pedirselo al Señor
Al punto de rodillas:
Y cuando de todo corazon
El Arbol viverá
en lo presente y lo porvenir. P. 158.
Guesalza. A cave of great depth and extension, full of crystals. It is situated near the Mondragon, in Guipuzcoa. P. 219.
Holy Oak, The. This is the Tree of Guernica, the symbol of the Basque liberties. P. 158.
Hurca-Mendi. A Basque word composed of hurca, gibbet, and mendia, mountain. This is the name of the place in which occurred the event referred to in the tale. In past times it was called Hurca-mendi-mendia, that is to say, the mountain of the gibbet, but at the present day the last word is suppressed, and is only known as in the title of the tradition. P. 247.
Ibaizabal. A word equivalent to "Wide River." It is the name given by the Basques to the river Nervion, which proceeds from the mountains Durango and Orduña, and,
passing Bilbao, empties itself into the sea at Portugalete, or, rather, between Santurce and Algorta, which stand to the right and left of the bar. P. 181.
Irati. One of the principal mountains of Navarre. It is covered by dense woods, in which are found lynx, bears, wolves, and all kinds of large game. The circumference of the base of this mountain measures about fifty kilometres. One part corresponds to France, and the rest to Navarre. P. 221.
Irrinzi. The shout, or call of war. Pp. 138 and 159.
Iturrioz. Fonte fria. The cold fountain. P. 80.
Izalzu. A village situated five kilometres from Ochagabia, in the valley of Aezcoa, in Navarre. P. 222.
Izaspi. An ancient place of Navarre. P. 216.
Jaizquibel. A mountain which rises parallel to the Cantabrian Sea from the Port of Passagens to that of Fuenterrabia. At its extreme north there stood anciently the promontory of Olearso, in our days the Cape of Higuer. P. 208.
Jauregui (Gaspar). Field-marshal in the service of the Queen D. Isabella II. He was a native of Villa-real, of Guipuzcoa. He had been a shepherd, and during the war against Napoleon was an untiring guerilla chief. P. 246.
Kuruceta. A mountain situated in Guipuzcoa and Navarre, upon which some hundreds of Basque prisoners were crucified during the wars against the Romans. P. 216.
Kurucificatuaren Canta. (The Chant of the Crucified.) During the long and sanguinary war sustained by the Romans against the inhabitants of the Basque mountains, the prisoners who fell into the power of the Romans were
crucified on the summit of the mountains, with the object of inspiring the dwellers with terror. The heroic Basques intoned, while on the cross, a chant of triumph and death, and also insulted their enemies, who witnessed with feelings of awe such manifestations of courage and lofty independence of spirit. P. 215.
Lamia. The Basque water-nymph, or mermaid. P. 185.
Lara. A young bard and Basque chief of the period when the wars were raging against the Empire of Rome. The poet Silio Italico, in the sixteenth book of his Epic Poem, assigned a whole page to describe the personal combat of Lara against Scipio, in which the Basque chief lost his right hand. P. 233.
Lecayo. A cry of joy which is used as a signal. P. 60.
Left hand of a child, The. It was a general belief among the mountain dwellers of the Basque provinces that the left hand of a child, if severed during sleep, and wrapped round with curls of its own hair, became a valuable amulet, which would deliver them of every kind of danger, and with it philters of different properties could also be made. There yet exists some among the rude inhabitants of the mountains of Roncal who foster this superstitious belief, although examples are unknown of this cruel mutilation ever having been effected, unless by the artifice of gipsies, agotes, or Jews in very remote ages, as there still exists evidence of severe provisions having been adopted against these barbarians. It was also a popular belief that the blood of children was useful for invigorating the weak bodies of women. P. 88.
Maitagarri. Among the Basque people this is a fairy, or hade, which inhabits the lakes, and corresponds to the "Peri," or the Genius of the Persians. According to the legend, or popular tradition, this fairy, or hade, fell in love with a shepherd called Luzaide, and she took him to the summit of Ahuñemendi, where she had her palace made of crystal. This legend evidently forms the basis of the narrative which the author gives in this chapter. P. 80 and 105.
Millares. By this name was anciently designated the amount of real property levied by the fueros as a tax, but later on this term comprehended all wealth derived from inheritance, dowries, or other bequests. Pp. 251.
Montlig and Astarac. Deserted places of the French Pyrenees. P. 223.
Nive. A French river, which springs on the declivity to the north of the Western Pyrenees, and joins the river Adour in Bayonne, and jointly flows into the Cantabrian Ocean. P. 224.
Novempopulania. During the epoch of the domination of the Romans, this district extended from the Cantabrian Ocean to the margin of the river Garrona, and from the first slope of the French Pyrenees to the margin of the above-said river and its mouth into the sea, forming an acute angle. P. 223.
Odolaga. A mountain which, forming a cordillera, separates the valleys of Baztan and Ulzama. It is covered with woods. P. 216.
Orbara. A precipitous defile of the valley of Aezcoa, in Navarre. P. 222.
Otsondo. A mountain on the frontiers of France, near the Urdax, in Navarre. P. 216.
Padura. A parochial district of Biscay. It was here that the natives completely routed the army of Ordoño the Wicked. At the present day this spot is known under the name of Arrigorriaga (Red stones), an appellation given to it, as tradition informs us, on account of the great quantity of blood which was spilt on the stones and imparted a red colour to them. P. 156.
Quidaria. Chieftain. P. 159.
Regil. The ancient Errazill. A town close to Tolosa, of Guipuzcoa. Its inhabitants routed the Romans in the time of Augustus. P. 230.
Sumbilla. A lovely, picturesque town of Navarre, situated in the valley of Lerin, on the straight line with Vidassoa, about thirty-five kilometres from Pamplona. P. 207
Tejo. A very common tree of the Basque mountains, the sap of which is poisonous. The Cantabrians used to poison themselves with this sap rather than surrender to the enemy. From this word Tejo was derived the name of Toxicum, or tosigo, which, later on, was applied to all descriptions of poison. Thousands of persons, principally among the aged men and women, took this poison, according to Roman historians, in Medulia and in the Hirnio, to save themselves from slavery and chains. P. 247.
Tolosa. The capital of the province of Guipuzcoa. P. 212.
Twenty-one. It was a custom of immemorial origin among the Basque people for ships to fire twenty-one guns on sighting
the church of Our Lady of Iciar, venerated under this invocation as the especial protectress of mariners. P. 54.
Zulogaraya, Izotzce, and Asarosta. Defiles of the French Pyrenees, which have their commencement in Spanish territory. P. 223.
Zumalacarregui (Thomas). A native of Ormaiztegui, in Guipuzcoa. He was general-in-chief of the army of Don Carlos. He died from the effects of a wound received in the first siege of Bilbao, in 1835. He was one of the best Spanish generals of this century. P. 246.