by Edward F. Malkowski
Research into glaciation cycles began
in the 19th century, but scientists still can't agree on why ice
ages occur. Now there's new evidence that a cold epoch is in the
Those of us who live in the Midwest
United States seem to have the worst of both worlds. Hot humid
summers, where the temperature often reaches 95 degrees, and cold
winters where the mercury can plummet to zero. Despite these
seemingly unbearable extremes, we live in a land of plenty because
of the most fertile soil in the world, courtesy of the Great Ice
Walls of Snow
According to scientists, over the course of the last two million
years, at least four (possibly six), periods of glaciation ploughed
out an assortment of rock from Canada, moved it south in a 100-foot
high flow of ice and snow, pulverized it against bedrock, and
deposited it on the Midwest plain.
The ice sheet produced large
quantities of gravel, sand, and silt. A mixture of these materials,
called till, forms much of the soil in the Ohio and Upper
Mississippi River valleys. Remnants of
these vast sheets of ice can
still be seen today in the form of numerous lakes that pepper the
northern regions of the Midwest.
Retreating glaciers left large
depressions in the earth’s crust which filled with melt water, the
most magnificent of which are the Great Lakes. Other, larger ones,
such as Lake Winnipeg, Reindeer, Athabasca, Great Slave, and Great
Bear in Canada, existed at one time but have since drained off and
Glaciers reached as far south as the current locations of the Ohio
and Missouri Rivers, although the Wisconsin ice sheet, the most
recent glacier, stopped midway across the extent of Illinois. Local
legend has it that the glacier stopped twenty miles north of
Springfield, the state capital. There is a grand mound there named
Elkhart Hill, more than a mile in circumference.
According to the History of Logan
County, Illinois, Elkhart Hill is,
“the most conspicuous physical
feature that adorns the landscape of Logan County... with virgin
timber, on its summit and every side, it entrances the vision of
the passerby, as it towers above” the surrounding landscape.
Glacial advances and retreats also had a
dramatic effect upon areas south of the glaciers.
Sea levels fell
approximately 425 feet with so much water diverted from the natural
cycle to form the ice. It exposed the flat continental shelves as
dry land. It had the same effect as raising the land, which caused
rivers to erode deep into valleys – the Lower Mississippi, Tombigbee-Alabama,
and Red River systems for example.
As the ice sheet melted, these
valleys were filled with sediment carried by melt water in swollen
rivers. Most of the water south of the glaciers flowed into the
Upper Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri River basins. Sediment loaded
water spilled into the Lower Mississippi River forming a huge flood
plain that stretched over 500 miles long and 200 miles wide.
At the leading edge of the glaciers, ice cliffs were up to two
hundreds feet high, with cold dry winds sweeping down from their
frozen crowns. The harshest of climatic conditions occurred in this
zone next to the ice. Cold temperatures and strong winds created an
Arctic desert, a wasteland littered with rock debris and fine
Strong winds gathered this sediment from the glaciers and
deposited it in sometimes thick, extensive layers called loess.
These deposits cover much of the Midwest and extended south into
Louisiana and Mississippi. Loess deposits form many of the present
day bluffs along the lower Mississippi River and are the source of
the rich Midwest farmland we enjoy today.
As the ice sheet slowly spread south, it pushed the sub-artic and
temperate zones farther south. Adjacent to the ice was a land of
tundra; followed by a zone of shrub tundra, and then scrub birch
forests, boreal (coniferous trees such as spruce, fir, and pine)
forests, and finally, farther south, were deciduous forests.
Eighteen thousand years ago, when the last glaciers were at their
maximum southern extent, the Gulf Coast was also colder and drier.
Rainfall in southern Louisiana and Mississippi was as much as 40
inches less, annually, than it is today. Boreal forests extended as
far south as northern Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Sparse
forests of northern pine likely covered the north central Gulf
Oak and hickory forests grew in the river bottoms. Florida
was drier and its average annual temperature was as much as 10
degrees cooler and was covered with sparse, scrubby vegetation, sand
dunes, and open grasslands. Tall grass prairie, with pine and aspen
growing in the river bottoms, adorned Central Texas. West Texas was
likely a prairie covered with short grass.
It is a geologic fact that ice has had a great impact on North
America. Besides the geological evidence of moraines, kettle lakes,
gouged bedrock, and erratic boulders, Greenland and Antarctic ice
core samples have demonstrated that levels of carbon dioxide (CO2)
have fluctuated over the millions of years. Lower levels of CO2
depict cooler periods in earth’s history, but it is unclear whether
these lower levels are the cause or the effect.
Although a great amount of scientific
research has been applied to the study of ice and ice ages and much
knowledge has been gained, why they occur is just as much a mystery
now as it was when Joseph Adhémar published the first
detailed ice age theory in his 1842 book, Revolutions de la Mer,
the Ice Age
As early as 1787, Bernard Kuhn believed that erratic boulders
in Swiss Jura were the result of ancient glaciation.
Hutton visited Jura seven years later, he arrived at the same
conclusion. However, until the first half of the 19th century, the
prevailing model to explain the observable geologic evidence was
that it was a result of the great biblical flood.
A German born geologist, Jean de
Charpentier (1786-1855), was captivated by erratic boulders and
moraines (mounds of glacial debris), and formed the first theory of
glaciation during the 1830s. In 1841, Test on the Glaciers, his
theory was published It was the first detailed, scientific case for
Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), who was also converted to the
glacier explanation of geologic curiosities, forged ahead and
integrated all these geologic facts to formulate a theory that a
great Ice Age had once gripped the Earth (Étude sur les glaciers,
1840). In a later book, Système glaciare (1847), he presented
further evidence gathered from all over Europe that supported his
theory. In 1848, he accepted a position at Harvard and moved to
America, where he discovered even more evidence of glaciation.
By 1870, the theory of ancient periods
of extensive ice was generally accepted by the scientific community.
Orbit and Wobble
With a scientific consensus that the Ice Age existed, the quest then
became what caused it.
The first theory, introduced by Joseph
Adhémar, was based on the Earth’s axis tilting back and forth
over a 26,000-year period, commonly referred to as the precession of
the equinoxes. As time passes, the constellations will slowly change
on a specific date (typically measured at the venal equinox), moving
backward through the zodiac.
Today the sun rises in the
constellation of Pieces at the spring equinox. Two thousand years
ago it was Aries; the next two thousand years, beginning around
2070, it will rise in Aquarius.
This tilt of the Earth’s axis is called the plane of the obliquity
and it extends outward to form a great circle in the celestial plane
known as the ecliptic. The angle is called the obliquity of the
ecliptic and is presently inclined at 23.5 degrees to the vertical,
but varies from 24.5 to 22.1 degrees. This angle of the Earth’s
axis, as we know, defines the seasons in temperate climates.
According to Adhémar’s theory, whichever hemisphere had a longer
winter would experience an ice age. Thus, every 11,000 years an ice
age would occur alternately in one hemisphere and then in the other.
James Croll, a self-taught scholar and one-time janitor at
the Andersonian College and Museum in Scotland, objected to Adhémar’s theory.
He concluded that the most plausible driving force
behind climate change were variations in solar radiation striking
Earth, called insolation, as a result of earth’s path of
orbit, which is elliptical and can vary up to five percent over
time. This eccentricity affects the amount of solar radiation that
strikes Earth’s surface at aphelion (our farthest point from the
sun) and at perihelion (our nearest point to the sun).
According to his theory, a decrease in the amount of solar radiation
during the winter favors the accumulation of snow. This would result
in additional loss of heat by the reflection of sunlight back into
space. If winter occurs when the earth is close to the sun, winters
will be naturally warmer than usual. But if winter occurs when the
sun is further away, temperatures will be colder than usual.
Therefore, if the polar area of a hemisphere becomes colder trade
winds will be stronger in that hemisphere, and warm equatorial ocean
currents would shift towards the opposite hemisphere further
augmenting the heat loss. If earth’s orbit were circular, the slow
wobble would have no effect at all on climate. Each season would
occur at the same distance from the sun. However, since
insolation in the Northern Hemisphere is out of phase with that
of the Southern Hemisphere, Croll believed that the ice ages would
alternate from the Northern to Southern Hemispheres.
Although the alternating ice age theory was proved to be wrong, his
ideas laid the foundation for ice age causality. He was the first to
recognize the importance of ocean currents, solar radiation, and the
eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit in building an explanatory model.
In 1876, a year after his own book was published, Croll was named a
Fellow of the Royal Society of London.
Early in the 20th century Milutin Milankovitch, a professor
of physics, mathematics, and astronomy at the University of
Belgrade, revived Croll’s insolation theory and set out on the task
of detailing insolation based on Ludwig Pilgrim’s latest
calculations of Earth’s orbit.
He showed that the insolation
was dominated by a 23,000-year cycle and concluded that ice ages
would be most intense when the solar radiation dropped below a
certain threshold. Since the insolation curve has an
approximate 100,000-year cycle, he believed that such a cycle might
be seen in the ice ages. He also had the insight to put forward the
idea that the Northern Hemisphere would dominate because it
contained two thirds of the Earth’s land mass. Driven by the amount
of solar radiation in the north, the ice ages in both the
Hemispheres would be synchronized.
Milankovitch’s insolation theory was abandoned when age
estimates, made possible by radiocarbon dating, showed that the
timing of his ice ages calculations were incorrect. However, isotope
studies in sea floor sediments which focused on changes in Earth’s
climate revived it during the 1960s and 1970s. Deep-sea sediments
containing the shells of small plankton-like organisms, called
foraminifers, holds a history of climate change. When alive, they
fix themselves to two types of oxygen atoms, the abundant and more
common oxygen-16 and oxygen-18. Oxygen-18, the heavier atom, is
enriched in ocean water; the lighter atom is found in higher
concentrations of snow and ice.
Whenever water is extracted from the ocean to make more ice, it
leaves its calling card in the oxygen. This enrichment, from
oxygen-16 to oxygen-18, is seen in the carbonate shells of the
foraminifers (made of CaCO3). The carbonate precipitates
from seawater, so the oxygen that builds the carbonate crystals,
reflects the composition of the seawater. By analyzing oxygen
isotopes in foraminifers, scientists can determine when the Earth
produced more glaciers, and the time periods when ice ages occurred.
In sea floor sediments, the presence of 100,000 as well as 41,000
and 23,000-year cycles in climate has been discovered. But there are
still unresolved questions. In glacial data, the 100,000-year cycle
seems to dominate, with the 41,000-year cycle weaker, and the
23,000-year weakest of all. However, in insolation theory, it
is the reverse.2
23,000-year cycle dominates and the weakest appears to be the
Uplift and the Global Climate
One of the more recent theories to explain ice ages links changes in
global climate to one of the Earth’s most impressive geological
features: the Himalayas. According to the theory proposed by
Maureen Raymo at Boston University, as the Himalayas grew,
massive amounts of rock were exposed to the elements.
rains soaked the land and combined with carbon dioxide, the face of
the exposed rock eroded. This process of chemical weathering
extracted so much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that global
temperatures dropped thus triggering an ice age.3
To show that this was the case Raymo turned to the study of seafloor
sediments and strontium.
There are several types (isotopes) of strontium, each with a
different atomic mass. Strontium-87, a heavier variety, is
washed into the sea by the chemical weathering of rock. The lighter
variety, strontium-86, is released by the spreading sea floor and
comes from deep inside the earth. By comparing the amounts of the
isotopes in different layers, Raymo believed that she would learn
which process was more active at any point in time. Thirty-five
million years ago, strontium-87 increased dramatically, coinciding
with the Himalayan uplift.
With the strontium evidence, Maureen Raymo believes she solved the
ice age mystery. First, the uplift of the Tibetan region intensified
the Indian monsoon.
Then the monsoon rains eroded the mountains,
stripping carbon dioxide from the air. Finally, with less carbon
dioxide, the atmosphere gradually cooled.
and a New Ice Age
Although distinct ocean currents have been known for some time,
scientists have recently determined that ocean currents play a
crucial role in climate and weather.
New research has determined
that shallow, warm water currents from the Pacific flow westward,
around Africa, and then northward along the African and
low of these waters keeps Europe balmy in contrast to
their counterpart, Labrador, across the Atlantic. It provides
Western Europe with a third as much warmth as the Sun does, and is
part of a global oceanic system that maintains the climatic status
In the North Atlantic, the Gulf Stream carries heat in the form of
warm water to the north and east. And as it moves north, it
evaporates and transfers its heat to the coastal areas.
water becomes saltier with evaporation, and when it reaches the
latitude of Iceland, its density reaches a point that it sinks to
the bottom. Then it becomes part of the cold-water return cycle and
flows southward in the Atlantic, around Africa and back to the
If by some way the warm waters ceased, Europe would enter a mini-ice
Current studies suggest that it is a possibility and that this
current conveyor belt in the North Atlantic is unpredictable. Since
the end of the last ice age, the arctic ice cap has continued to
melt, allowing fresh water into the North Atlantic.
If too much
fresh water enters the ocean (thereby diluting its salt content and
keeping it less dense) it would not sink and join the return
currents at the bottom. It would remain where it is, blocking the
warm currents from entering, and altering the climate of Europe.
This same type of ocean currents exists in the South Atlantic near
Antarctica. There, ocean currents flow along the coast. Deep cold
currents flow back from the South Atlantic, south of Africa and on
to Australia. Cold, salty water off the Antarctic coast sinks into
the depths, thereby boosting its push to the interconnected system
of ocean currents.
According to Wallace Broecker of
Columbia University, Antarctic waters are sinking only at a third of
the rate they were a hundred years ago. But this will have a
different effect. If correct, the slowdown in the Antarctic deep
current‚ that began a century ago will make the Antarctic colder and
the Gulf Stream warmer. The current global warming trend began
during the 1880s and received a boost during the 1870s from man.
Broecker believes that this warming is
man-made and is fighting against a natural cooling trend.4
Donald Patten proposes a completely different theory as to
the cause of the ice age, one that involves a catastrophe of global
Although his idea seems to be as much theologically
driven as scientific, he puts forth a well researched and plausible
explanation of the affects a comet “near miss” would have on earth’s
climate. He also discusses motives and beliefs, almost a
creationist’s rebuttal to geologic uniformitarianism, and provides a
history of scientists and writers espousing a catastrophic approach
to earth geology.
Since the 1920s, George McCready Price,
Byron C. Nelson, Alfred M. Rehwinkel, Henry Morris, Charles Hapgood,
Immanuel Velikovsky, and Dolph E.
Hooker, among others, have carried the banner of a sudden
catastrophic approach to explaining ice ages.5
The phenomenon that provides Patten and others with some punch to
their proposition is the bizarre evidence of the frozen mammoths,
which is still a mystery today. Although mammoths are not the sole
animals that have been found frozen (rhinoceros, sheep, horses,
oxen, lions, tigers, and bison have also been found), as an extinct
species, they have been at the forefront of scientific research.
Their remains, sometimes whole, have been found in Siberia and
Alaska by the tens of thousands and have provided the world with an
ongoing supply of ivory.
Russia has a long tradition in providing ivory from Siberian islands
for the past 2,000 years. Between 1880 and 1900, nearly 20,000 tusks
were taken from a single island. It is estimated that there may be
up to 3 million mammoths still buried in Siberia.6
According to a National Geographic article, experts estimate that
there are 600,000 tons of ivory still available for recovery.7
A sudden calamity, such as an asteroid impact or comet near miss,
fares well in explaining the death of millions of animals.
precedent is seen in the greatest extinction of all at the end of
the Cretaceous Period, when a giant asteroid impact resulted in the
extinction of dinosaurs.
Patten also explains, in his comet near-miss theory, the
formation of mountain ranges and why they are distributed in an arc
across the continents.
When this icy visitor came too close to
Earth, it became trapped in orbit for a period of nine months,
circling as another moon. On two occasions when it came quite close,
its gravitational pull exerted extreme force, not only on the
oceans, which created giant tidal waves, but also on the earth’s
Magma in the core reacted in much the same way as the
oceans do to a gravitation force. As a result with each close pass
of the comet, a wave of molten rock was pulled upward forcing the
earth’s crust upward.
As this comet danced in Earth’s orbit, ice that had broken away from
its mass was deposited in vast quantities through electromagnetic
defection. According to Patten’s theory, six million cubic miles of
ice was dumped on the northern and southern hemispheres each; ice
that’s temperature was –150o. At the center nodes, the
ice would have been three miles thick and feathering out at the
edges. The ice appeared suddenly, not over a long period of time.
Only this, according to the theory, accounts for the sudden freezing
of millions of animals.
He also argues that the shape of the ice sheets fits the comet near
miss theory. The continent-sized glaciers of the ice age were
thickest at the center. From today’s climate in Antarctica, we know
that very little snow falls at the center of the continent due to
the cold dry air’s inability to retain moisture. It is a desert
wasteland of rock and gravel.
On the edges, however, there is
substantial snowfall because of the convergence of warm, moist air
with cold air. If snow were to be the primary factor in creating the
ice of the ice age, then its accumulation would be thickest at the
periphery and not the center.
One of the most intriguing human elements of Charles Hapgood’s
wandering pole theory is that Albert Einstein believed
researching the subject was desirable and that it “would not be
justified to discard the idea a priori as adventurous.”
Einstein’s letter to Charles Hapgood,
dated November 24, 1952 is published in his book Path of the
I frequently receive communications
from people who wish to consult me concerning their unpublished
ideas. It goes without saying that these ideas are very seldom
possessed of scientific validity. The very first communication,
however, that I received from Mr. Hapgood electrified me. His
idea is original, of great simplicity, and – if it continues to
prove itself – of great importance to everything that is related
to the history of the earth’s surface.9
Hapgood’s theory began with an interest
in geography and ancient maps, which led to his re-discovery of
the Piri Reis Map, a hand drawn
Turkish naval map that had been gathering dust since the 16th
century. According to its sources, the map was drawn a few years
after Columbus launched his first voyage to the Americas.
Admiral Piri Reis, cartographer
of the map, noted that his world map was derived from very old
reference maps. Upon close inspection, Hapgood noticed evidence of
spherical trigonometry in the map’s layout and a detailed knowledge
of global geography that included the coastline of Antarctica at
some remote time when it was free of ice. The map was accurate at a
time when no one should have known the coastal areas of Antarctica.
This prompted Hapgood to search for an explanation that eventually
led to his controversial theory.
According to Hapgood’s theory of wandering poles, every 20,000 to
30,000 years the earth’s continental plates move as a single unit,
rapidly over great distances. This phenomenon occurs today, known as
continental drift, but at a much slower rate. If conditions arise
that created an imbalance in the earth’s gyroscopic rotation, his
theory stipulates that the earth’s plates would move in such a
manner in order to return the earth to a balanced spin.10
Geologic evidence, suggesting that the poles may have been in
different positions during the Pleistocene, is impressive.
Based on geomagnetic and carbon dating evidence, he identifies the
locations of the four previous poles and maps out their transitional
paths. Seventeen thousand years ago, the North Pole was located in
the Hudson Bay and over 5,000 years moved to it’s current position.
Before that, the North Pole was located in the Greenland Sea 75,000
year ago, and moved southwest to the Hudson Bay. Prior to the
Greenland Sea location, the pole was located in the Yukon Territory
How this movement occurs is easily explained by the earth’s
composition. We live on the crust, the outer surface, which is
comprised of six main continental plates and a few smaller ones. The
inner core consists of solid iron surrounded by an outer core of
liquid iron. Surrounding the core is the mantle that is composed of
molten rock (lower mantle) and solid rock (upper mantle).
mantle and crust are loosely connected and able to slide against
each other, the least effect of which is continental drift.
Theoretically, each layer is capable of movement independent of
other layers. According to Hapgood, the top two layers can slide, if
certain forces were applied, while the core, and the axis and orbit
of the planet, remain unchanged. The difficult part is what force
causes the slippage.
In Hapgood’s opinion, the centrifugal momentum of ice caps,
eccentric to the poles, provides this force. The weight of the ice
on the poles creates an imbalance in the Earth's rotation.
Eventually, this builds to a point where a change is required to
correct the imbalance. Hapgood realized that the entire planet did
not need to be repositioned around its axis to maintain its balance.
Only the outer crust needed to move,
just as the loose skin of a peeled orange can slide around the inner
fruit. He envisioned a catastrophic and dramatic move of the entire
crust that allowed the polar ice caps to melt in a new, warmer
climate. Ice would then begin to build at the new poles, awaiting
the next shift.
The crust’s rapid movement, of course, would create
environmental mayhem. If the current level of seismic and volcanic
activity were a result of plates shifting between one and four
centimeters per year, a much faster rate of change would likely be
Whatever way the poles shifted, regional climates everywhere would
change dramatically. The displaced polar ice would melt, causing
incredible floods. The new polar areas would freeze in a relatively
short amount of time, almost instantly killing life that was
accustomed to a warmer climate.
Areas of climatic convergence would
shift; deserts would receive rain while rainforests would become
deserts. Plant and animal life would need to adapt to the new
conditions or become extinct. The evidence suggests as much.
Frozen deposits of soil, rock, plant and animal remains exist in
Alaska, commonly known as “muck.” University of New Mexico Professor
Frank Hibben explains that:
In many places, Alaskan muck is
packed with animal bones and debris in trainload lots. Bones of
mammoths, mastodons, several kind of bison, horses, wolves,
bears and lions tell a story of a faunal population… within this
frozen mass lie the twisted parts of animals and trees
intermingled with lenses of ice and layers of peat and mosses.
It looks as though in the midst of some cataclysmic catastrophe
of ten thousand years ago the whole Alaskan world of living
animals and plants was suddenly frozen in mid-motion like a grim
charade…twisted and torn trees are piled in splintered masses …
at least four considerable layers of volcanic ash may be traced
in these deposits, although they are extremely warped and
In Southern California’s La Brea tar
pits more than 565 species of animals were fossilized in the sticky
tar (asphalt) some 10,000 years ago.
During the first excavation in
1906, scientists found a bone bed that contained over seven hundred
saber-toothed tiger skulls. Combined with wolf skulls, they averaged
twenty per cubic yard.13
There existed more bones than tar and were discovered “broken,
mashed, contorted and mixed in a most heterogeneous mass,”
14 nearly identical to the
muck of Alaska. 100,000 fossilized birds were also recovered
representing over 138 species, 19 of which are extinct.
During the same period of time mammoths were being killed in a
similar fashion. John Massey, of the Smithsonian, estimated that
more than 500,000 tons of mammoth tusks were buried along Siberia’s
Several dozen frozen mammoth carcasses have been found with the
flesh still intact, such as the Jarkov Mammoth.16
They died suddenly, and found in their stomachs was undigested plant
matter that included grass, bluebells, wild beans and buttercups.
Scientists have concluded that some of the mammoths died of
asphyxiation, but in general the cause of death has not been
A pole shift from the Hudson Bay to its current position would
explain the mysterious extinction and mass burials that occurred at
the end of the Pleistocene. During the Hudson Bay pole, the North
Siberian coastline would have had the same latitude as Japan does
today, far outside of the Arctic Circle. But when the poles shifted,
the climate would have rapidly changed within a matter of days, from
a summer savannah where mammoths grazed to a frozen wasteland.
In his theory, Hapgood also explains the mountain building forces as
a function of gravity. Although the forces that build a mountain are
obviously complex, the principles are simple to explain. As an area
of land moves towards the pole, the radii of the earth are shorter,
the circumference is shorter, and the surface required is less.
(Polar and equatorial circumference differ by 13 miles.) A surplus
of surface exists, and this, being pulled down by gravity, must
fold. Mountains are not being pushed up, but the surface is being
pulled down nearer to the earth’s core.
The force of gravity over a large area
folds the surface in a small area to accommodate its new position on
the globe. In the opposite direction, as land moves away from the
pole, it must expand. Major parallel faults will occur with minor
faults at right angles. Where these faults occur molten rock from
below fills up the crevasse.
According to Hapgood, the
movements of land to and away from the equator over millions of
years, have produced the mountain ranges we admire today.
Did the Ice
Age Really Exist?
The various hypotheses explaining the great ice age appear as a grab
bag of theoretical ‘pick and choose.’
Each is backed by scientific
evidence and has its own aficionados. Each tells a story of earth’s
past and all fall into one of two general categories. Those that
postulate slow gradual climatic change, and those that describe a
sudden catastrophic beginning to the ice age. However, Hapgood
and his theory of pole shift imply that the ice age never exited.
But that is a matter of perception, geographically speaking. There
is always an existing ice age near the poles.
North America was located close to the
Artic Circle and was naturally covered in ice because of its
position, as were the various poles before it (as is our current
pole). With the exception of mountain formation, the mechanics of
pole shift are essentially the same as slow continental drift, only
it occurs during a much smaller period of time. This, of course, has
made his theory controversial.
Regardless if the ice age was a natural phenomenon or the result of
an interstellar visitor, the climate drastically altered life for
those who were alive. It is a known geologic fact that at the end of
the last ice age, 10,000 BC, many North American species became
extinct; including the mammoths, camel, horse, ground sloth,
peccaries (pig-like hoofed mammals), antelope, American elephant,
rhinoceros, giant armadillo, tapirs, saber-toothed tigers and giant
bison. It also affected the climates of lower latitudes in Central
and South America.
Those lands also have revealed evidence
of mass extinction. The mechanism that brought these animals to
their graves is still a mystery.
The Ice Age (Pleistocene Epoch),
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, see
For more information on the
historical development of ice age theories see “A brief
Introduction to Ice Age Theories,” Richard A. Muller,
Professor of Physics at the University of California at
Berkeley, also see
“Cracking the Ice Age,”
Television Documentary, PBS, September 30, 1997, see also
for a full transcript.
“Powerful Forces Beneath the
Ocean Waves May Wreak Havoc on Our Climate, Driven by Global
Warming”, John Gribbin, see
The Biblical Flood and the Ice
Epoch, Donald Patton, Pacific Meridian Publishing, Seattle
WA, 1966, p. 16-24.
On The Track of Ice Age Animals,
A.J. Sutcliffe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA,
1985, P. 108.
“Mammoth Load of Ivory from
Pleistocene,” National Geographic Magazine, January 1992,
Path of the Pole, Charles
Hapgood, Adventures limited Press, 1999, P.327.
Ibid., P. xiv.
For an in depth dissertation on
the physics of pole shift see “On The Possibility Of Very
Rapid Shifts of the Poles,” F. Barbiero,
Path of the Pole, P. 94-95.
“Evidence of Early Man in
Alaska”, Frank Hibben, American Antiquity, VIII, 1943, P.
Earth in Upheaval, Immanuel
Velikovsky, 1955, P. 59.
The New Geology: A Textbook for
Colleges, Normal Schools, and Training Schools; and for the
General Reader, George McCready Price, 1923, P. 579.
“Frozen Mammoths from Siberia
Bring the Ice Ages to Vivid Life,” John Massey Stewart,
Smithsonian, 1977, P. 67.
“Raising the Mammoth,”
Television Documentary, Discovery Channel, March 12 2000,
also on DVD by Discovery Home Studios, July 23, 2002.