from "Lost Science" by Gerry
For the enthralled onlookers who reported the mysterious and
luminary "aeroships" during the 1890's, cavernous space seemed to be
opening new secrets and potentials for humanity. The whole nation
watched the night skies for signs of strange crafts, ships "from an
Aeroship sightings swept the country
long before the press could reach and contaminate the more
susceptible with the furor of panic and mass hysteria. It was the
only such mass event in recent time in which unidentified flying
objects were sighted, not by media-precipitation, but through direct
and continual experience.
The townsfolk and farmland residents of the yet agrarian American
Society were bewildered with the source of these sightings. Here was
experiential contact, but contact with whom ... or what? The first
aeroships were ghostlike in appearance. Though fixed in their
outward cylindrical form, they often appeared semi-transparent and
vague in detail. Their silence was another feature, which positively
enthralled those who accidentally beheld their serene aerial
Gossamer fabrications, their solid geometric shapes gradually
acquired other mystifying attributes. Like a vision, which forms
from mist and slowly clarifies to sharpness with time, the aeroships
"became" identifiable as some bizarre craft for transportation.
Colored lights, flashing lights, searchlight beacons, turbines,
sounds ... the sounds came after a sizable population saw the
objects, and ... vaguely "human personages".
Those who looked into the stars were the fortunate recipients of a
new and fast coming dawn, where dream symbols were actively weaving
the future. A new revelation was suddenly permeating the American
mind. Books and gazettes were flooded with tales of aerial
abductions. Townspeople shared what aerial visions they nightly saw.
Local newspapers were astir with the reports.
All thoughts turned away from the earth
and focused on the stars, looking for signs of the strange crafts
and their whereabouts. The "mysterious visitors" who made their
nightly, silent aerial courses across Midwestern wheat fields seemed
vaguely linked with a lost time and a forgotten world. There was
something dreamlike in their nature. Dreamlike, yet solid.
Were they the embodiments of some inventor's mad schemes, or were
they phantasms of the collective symbolic world? Sighted over
California, New Mexico, Texas, Nebraska, Iowa, Omaha, Kansas,
Missouri, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Delaware, New York,
the early sightings of aeroships signaled a new movement in the sea
of dreams. Soon, human art would join that movement, producing
physical crafts, which mimicked the first "aerial ghost-ships".
Their movements seemingly had no boundaries or limits. German
immigrants had seen these "demonic engines" in their homeland, from
1860 until the 1880's.
Why had they seemingly pursued
them across the Atlantic?
Who were they and why were they
What did these voyagers signify?
Traveling over the houses of those who
would see them, the ships could be described with greater accuracy.
All of them were "cigar shaped"
measuring some one hundred feet long or more. Better details were
seen than those in which the aeroships "soared overhead at six
hundred feet". There were mystery ships, which came close to the
ground, multiple witnesses of high credibility simultaneously seeing
the ships land.
Whereas early sightings (1890-1892) were dreamlike and attractively
benign, most persons were increasingly frightened by their
appearance during the "mid-season" (1893-1896). The strange designs
somehow seemed "hostile", though no hostile activities were ever
associated with them. People were gradually sensing an insidious
"invasion" of their world. Fearing that hordes of nameless, faceless
armies would descend and do harm to thousands, ranchers took note
and armed themselves.
All too numerous first aeroship sightings remained in the files of
the paranormal, involving mysterious personages of truly unknown
origins, languages, and abilities. Fears seemed confirmed when some
aeroship shadowy "visitors" were seen during night flaps. Gradually
clarifying from shadow to light, these mystery beings were observed
by a great number of people.
Standing amid intensely brilliant
"search lights", strange figures were seen examining their craft.
Certain of these strange figures spoke bizarre languages, hybrids of
familiar dialects. In one case, the design seemed "oriental" in
design. The aerial visitors seemed human, but their clothing was
totally otherworldly and, somehow, futuristic. They certainly
"looked different". Their languages were certainly no identifiable
tongue. They came close enough to engage a contact.
Running toward the figures often resulted in their "immediate"
withdrawal and ascent. They seemed able to de-materialize and appear
overhead in seconds! Intent on remaining elusive, ordinary people
were convinced that something supernatural was happening. The
"mystery visitors" maintained a curious and dreamy separation from
the humanity, which they were stimulating. "They" seemed frightened
of meeting and engaging people, as if power would be lost through
Late season aeroship encounters (1895-1899) changed dramatically.
Some farmers and mechanics tried running near the ships, describing
them as "canoe shaped crafts". They were often flooded within with a
"greenish or bluish" light. Under the large housing, there were
multiple portholes from which downward looking faces peered
excitedly. In several cases there were turbine-like wheels, whose
slow turning effected rapidly ascending retreats.
In one case, the mystery night visitors hoisted cattle away, strung
by the neck with what appeared to be a wire rope. The red aeroship
flew off toward the distant hills. Several of the "later mystery
aeroships" were actually engaged in friendly conversation, dirigible
hovering in plain sight. Aeroships now became "aerialists", the
mystery seemingly solved.
For most, it became obvious that "inventors" were behind the entire
phenomenon from start to finish. German inventors! Dirigibles began
appearing everywhere. The names Autzerlitz, Eddelman, Tillman,
Dolbear, Nixon, and Schoetler seemed to answer the question, which
frightened German Americans had asked. But these individuals had
also seen the early ghostships, an anomaly which could not
find a reasonable answer.
Nevertheless, most people were completely assured that the entire
history of aeroships was an elaborate confusion of observations ...
secret societies, hoaxes, publicity stunts, and the like. Certainly
a few of these last sightings were indeed the result of secret
earthly aerial "clubs". Designers and financiers together undertook
the early construction of dirigibles. There were several reports of
such an enterprise. The device was huge, used hydrogen gas for lift,
and sported several advanced osmium-filament searchlights for
The inventor, a Mr. Wilson by name, came out to meet with intrigued
townspeople. Sharing with them in a friendly conversation the
secrets of his developments, he explained that his point of origin
was a "little peaceful town in Iowa". Yes, he was an American, born
in Goshen, New York. An electrical system employing "highly
condensed" electricity provided propulsive force for the craft. Mr.
Wilson added that he had undertaken the construction of five other
flying machines such as the one, which he flew.
Before leaving, he asked the sheriff, to give his regards to the
local itinerant judge whom he knew by name. Asking only buckets of
water "for his engine", he entered the craft. Lifting out of view to
the many cheers of those who watched, he passed into history never
again heard. Dirigibles and other such flying crafts were already
becoming a Patent registry revolution;
Patent 565805 to Charles Abbott
Smith (1896), and
Patent 580941 to Henry Heintz
(1897), being two typical examples.
Researchers who have investigated the all too numerous mystery
airship sightings observe that modes of aerial travel very swiftly
became an international obsession among all too numerous youthful
engineers. Thereafter, the world beheld a new era of experimental
daring, as aerialists played their soaring games before the skyward
looking eyes of wonderstruck admirers. Lovely designs appeared,
first on drawing boards, and then in the skies.
Cylindrical balloons were wrapped in netting or canvas, and firmly
fixed to a "well aerated" gondola, slung underneath. Some of these
designs were truly compact and efficient. Engines, propellers, and
rudders were all controlled by levers and wheels. The problems of
aerial maneuverability were solved by a brilliant little man, a
physio-type perfect for the aerial arena. Alberto Santos-Dumont,
the aerialist playboy, incorporated his own private dirigible design
... for engaging young belles along the shores of the Seine.
Descending from the clouds with his butler-assistant, he brought
champagne and succulent delicacies for an occasional "chance
meeting". Permission duly granted by governess attendants, butler
was exchanged for belle, as the marvelous Monsieur Dumont flew away
with his jewel. Never was the fairy tale more complete. The socially
accepted aerialist was never refused.
To refuse Santos-Dumont was to refuse an
honor of the very "highest" sort. Wealthy, eligible, poised, and
proper, the silk scarfed bandit of the Parisian skies made his daily
appearance over and about the lovely Champs Elysees. Soaring aloft
with his more adventuresome feminine admirers, he toured the
Parisian skies. No one of these swooning mademoiselles could
thereafter claim never to have been literally "swept off her feet"
by a man.
After a specified time, he easily
settled his craft down again with the great skill and panache of an
artistic lover. The damsels safely returned to their enthralled and
permissive governesses, belle was sadly exchanged for butler. Hands
were lightly kissed, a flower exchanged perhaps.
His timing was always impeccably precise. The "wrist-watch", which
his friend Cartier first designed for his exclusive aerial use, had
already become the rage of Paris. Aerial crafts, strange
glass-covered instruments, flying goggles, wristwatches, drooping
moustache, and special flying suits ... the short little
serious-faced man cut a comic, but somehow dramatic figure. Imbued
with a sense of the visionary future, women flocked to him. In
truth, he remains an historic figure of bizarre aerial gallantry.
Alberto Santos-Dumont justifiably received the most public acclaim
in the early days of aerial transportation, a master of the art. His
performances greatly endeared aerial transportation to the public as
a science, art, and sport. In one exhibition, he successfully
maneuvered around and through the Eiffel Tower. Photographs of the
event are startling. The art of dirigible flying was perfected in
him, the strange little flying man for whom dreamers owe a strong
gratitude. Vive Santos-Dumont!
A never-ending armada of aerialists, hoping in part to mimic Dumont,
covered the aeroship mystery for most bewildered people of the day
with their grand public displays. Forgotten were the phantom-like
apparitions of vague form, mysteriously floating like visions across
the worldwide skies. Despite the historical closed chapter on
aeroships, a single mysterious note of the most exquisitely haunting
variety followed the development and deployment of dirigibles.
The story focuses upon an elderly German gentleman, Dellschau
by name. An early and forgotten researcher of aerial phenomena, he
maintained records of all the aeroship sightings after 1850. The
poor man clung to his precious notebooks until his passing at the
remarkable age of 92. These books were later noticed at an aviation
exhibition by an inquiring researcher (Navarro). The books are
covered with drawings of dirigibles and other clippings, all from
the middle 1800's. Among the numerous and rare newspaper clippings
were bizarre designs for airships. Far too massive for realistic
flight, they may have been attempts to sublimate the apparitions.
There are indications that Mr. Dellschau was a member of a secret
society, which, on further study of the arcane German dialect in
which he wrote, had every aspect of a Jules Verne novel. According
to the researcher who examined the notebooks, a group of sixty
researchers and developers formed the core of this early Aero Club.
The translation infers that aerial ships were tested and flown by
the secret group in Germany during the 1850's, and afterward in
This anomalous report would explain all the previous sightings, both
in Germany and in America, were it not for more important details.
On close examination, there were significant inconsistencies with
the claims and the designs themselves. The designs each seemed more
like rockets, their actual balloon sections being far too small to
realistically lift the indicated weight.
There are those who would believe
Dellschau's descriptions of "NB gas", the "weight nullifying gas",
belong to a yet unknown lifting agent. Possibly obtained in the
distillation of rare minerals, or in some electrical process, these
bizarre explanations would be plausible for many who are aware of
similar past discoveries.
Nevertheless, there is another explanation, which, having a more
macabre fascination seems to be closest to the reality of both
aeroship sightings and Dellschau himself. A reclusive visionary, he
wrote in the manner of a mystic possessed by a great and awesome
secret. The more extraordinary explanation for both European and
American sightings seems to be found in recognizing that the
sightings "followed" Dellschau himself wherever he traveled.
May it never be said that dreams and
visions, suffusing sufficiently empowered human beings, cannot
The "mystery aeroship" sightings yet remain as true materializations
of dream and reality, myth and engineering, archetype and design.
Space-projected dream fragments have a curious way of moving through
the stimulating revolutions, which they materialize. With the
expression of the aeroships now in material form, all thoughts of
apparitional aeroships were dispatched to the world of dreams and
Designers and builders undertook mighty works toward these more
material ends, fabricating the grandest, most elaborate renditions
of dirigibles. They were one latest wonder in a Century, which
produced so very many wonders. But those who watched the skies for
passing dirigibles made of wood, canvas, glass, tin, and gas were
suddenly taken aback. For there, there above the clouds where
dirigibles puttered along, new aerial manifestation began appearing.
Dreamy in appearance when first sighted, earth-bound watchers were
almost afraid to report them for fear of public ridicule. The
apparitions which thousands began seeing and reporting were called
"ghost rockets". These cloudlike apparitions were cylindrical with
tapered ends. They sprouted prodigious quantities of smoke, while
traveling straight across the sky at velocities, which seemed
fantastic. Like the first aeroship apparitions, these ghost-rockets
were absolutely ill defined and silent.
These crafts, if dirigibles, seemed totally advanced to those who
beheld them. Wingless, rudderless, and silent; these devices defied
all inventive reason. The ghost-rockets were seen in every nation.
Their gradual "acquisition of details" is now a matter of the
indelible historic record. Portholes, fins, wings, humans, each
appeared in graded successions. In the same developmental manner as
was experienced with mystery aeroships, human stimulations
determined to build what they sensed. The dream sea, surging,
suffused the world-mind with a new quest.
It was no wonder when the idea of space flight seized the
imagination of all whose parents previously beheld the silent
armadas of mystery aeroships. Edgar Rice Burroughs lived
through the days when mystery aeroships were making their
inexplicable journeys through both the night sky and the mind of
society. A true visionary of his day, he thrilled readers with his
Mars Adventure series.
John Carter, his central theme hero, was the earthman that was
mystically "translated" to Mars after accidentally walking through a
certain "forgotten cavern" of the Arizona deserts. The
interplanetary gateway, an artifact of archaic magick, was indeed
the most gloriously advanced means for travel among the distant
planets. The beauty of this mythic dream portrays the archetypes
well, as magickal doorways into other worlds consistently flood the
symbolic lexicon of fables and legends the world over.
The Mars Series exposed young readers to the possibilities of
interplanetary travel and contact with other civilizations. The
extremely sublime dream-forms portrayed and represent by Edgar Rice
Burroughs required another thirty years for their realization.
Legendary experiments dealing with
inter-dimensional travel continued to haunt American scientific
society throughout the remainder of their Twentieth Century, mostly
among privateers and natural philosophers. Among the works of
several independent researchers it is said that these wonders were
approached and actually achieved. In the inability to immediately
realize the "gateway" symbol in material form, a mythic theme more
capable of bridging gaps from existing technology toward possible
new ones was forged.
John Carter's mystery caverns and
their magickal technology was forgotten. The modified dream quest,
the image and frame of desire in the early Twentieth Century, became
Space was opened, a portal pouring forth its dream floods. The great
rush of activities focused all technological attention on rockets
and their potential. Rockets into space! Even the heroic tales
shifted their focus for the new theme. Buck Rogers and
Flash Gordon appeared, embracing their young readers with a
fresh new dream whose power derived from more mechanically
Rockets were not being developed by academicians. Too many physical
laws taught them to be "impractical and futile". American
academicians had difficulty with accepting the rocket as a viable
propulsive mode for travel. But these "laws and restrictions" did
not stop young enthusiasts bent on making history. Rockets were
being made and tested by numerous rocket clubs in Europe. Experience
taught that rockets (whether strapped on to sleds, trains, cars,
boats, planes, or human rocketeers) were too unstable and dangerous
to be taken seriously. Rockets were indeed unpredictable.
Films of the early rocket era reveal the often-frightening scenarios
of explosions, flying wheels, spinning sleds, and burning coveralls.
Solid fuel rockets were too uncontrollable. Once ignited, there was
"no turning back". One rocket train experiment was heavy enough not
to flyaway, but its acceleration was so extreme that the passengers
simply blacked out after ten seconds' travel time. Some way had to
be found by which rocket thrust could be "throttled".
Here, in America, science writers were busy upbraiding the designs
of one Robert Goddard, a high school physics teacher who had
been developing liquid chemical rocket engines of superlative power
and performance. Goddard's liquid fuel rockets demonstrated the
critical control feature so obviously missing in solid rockets.
This was achieved through valves, which
could be applied or shutdown as thrust was desired. Numerous
articles appeared in Scientific American, refuting the very ability
of rockets to operate in vacuum ... in space. The writers of such
outrageously non-scientific articles each offered their "reasons"
why Goddard's scheme would fail. Such pen and ink assaults "proved"
that rockets would not work in vacuum. It was said that rocket
engines would self-extinguish in vacuum.
Among the carnival of ill-informed academic statements we find that
singular "proof" which taught that rockets could not long travel
through vacuum ... not having "anything against which to push". No
doubt, this onslaught came just as Goddard was about to receive a
sizable research grant! With monies of his own, Dr. Goddard
developed guidance systems, fuel pumps, nozzle-coolant systems,
directional stabilizers, and every fundamental component, which
appears in modern liquid chemical rockets. Government agencies were
now thoroughly convinced that rocketry was an impractical scheme.
But the dream traveled among honest dreamers. It settled on a
European rocket club, which enjoyed their Sunday afternoon lectures.
Theirs was a celebration of rockets, space dreams, beer, song, and
pretty girls. This club gained prominence in accomplishments, which
sounded across their land. Their fame was very unfortunately
discovered by their own now-fascist government. Despite an
overwhelmingly enthusiastic endorsement from one Charles
Lindbergh, the U.S. Government failed to deliver Goddard's
grant. Interest in his complete patent collection went elsewhere: to
Nazi Germany, to be exact.
Back in Zanesville, Ohio, a young dreamer was looking up into the
night sky. The very thought of space travel and of visiting other
near worlds thrilled the mind of young Thomas Townsend Brown. Tom
studied existing rocket engines and rocket engine performance. These
revealed great new possibilities for getting into space. In his mind
and hands, a far better dream would be weave itself. It would be
one, which would challenge every fundamental doctrine of science.
He simply wanted to build a rocket engine. A new kind of engine. A
small, compact engine which could use very little chemical fuel, and
deliver gravity defying thrust. In order to begin this quest, he
first took to the library to see what was known about rocket
engines. The physics and chemistry texts, which he consulted, were
not encouraging. Dead laws, walls, boundaries, restrictions, and
limits were encountered at every turn of a page! They were the same
writings used to turn Dr. Goddard's funding requests down.
Tom did not believe that Nature was not ironclad, certainly never
limited by "restrictions". Books were not the face of Nature; books
were descriptions of small pieces of Nature. It sure was funny how
whenever Nature showed a new thing, the books were rewritten and
taught again as ironclad truth! Despite his every search through the
physics books, it seemed that conventional avenues of pursuit were
walled in by laws, which said "no" to his rocketeer dream.
The avid young mind was never satisfied with these academic "limits,
bounds, and laws". This disappointing wall of resistance from which
the young fifteen year old could not turn caused him to move into a
new line of thought. Putting the heavy and disappointing texts away,
his mind clearly embraced the numerous possibilities inspired by the
very thought of space travel.
There just had to be some better way to
launch out into space!
And he would find it.
Tom Brown's mind raced. If chemicals could not supply enough
thrust, then new fuels and systems could be developed. Potent
propulsion systems might be discovered by combining numerous ideas
together. There must be a way. Nothing would stop him. Zarkov's
spaceship was surrounded by a ring of rockets, spouting
electrical ignitions and mysterious applications. Maybe electricity
held a secret, yet untapped.
Why did rockets work?
Rockets worked because they arranged for
the controlled explosion of their fuels. The explosion was shaped
and directed by a temperature resistant "reaction chamber" in a
single direction. The action of these escaping gases produced the
reaction of the rocket mass. Newton was right in this case. The key
to a rocket's thrust was the mass of the flame per second and its
speed. The mass of a flame was a nothingness, so where did the
thrust come from? It came from the velocity of the flame.
A small mass per second was multiplied by the high rate of explosive
escape. This product gave the reactive momentum. Chemical explosions
gave thrusts, which were dependent on their "burn" temperature. The
flame speeds could be measured against the speed of sound by several
factors. Chemists of the day called this the "fugitive pressure",
that is, the explosive pressure.
Tom stopped reading and thought.
The hotter the flame, the higher the
thrust. The higher the thrust, the smaller and more compact an
engine could be.
The local drugstore had a neon sign in
This was always a fascination to Tom.
Growing up, he spent time looking into its buzzing glass tubes to
watch the red feathery gas which filled the sign with light. Now
when he looked into the tube, he suddenly realized something of
great importance in his study of rockets.
An electrical rocket, of course!
These were things whose velocities were
close to that of light itself! The highest velocities could be
achieved through electricity. Now, here was something to really dig
into. How fast would a gas move in an electrical field? It would
have to be much faster than any chemical explosion could ever yield.
Now he had a direction. Rather than having the texts guide his
vision, his new vision would guide the use of texts.
Every book, which mentioned electrical discharges, gave unbelievable
velocities for the glowing gases. Sir William Crookes
described these molecular "mean free paths", the free space through
which ions could accelerate in the applied electrical fields. Their
velocities were enormous, far more than chemical explosions could
produce. It was known that a very small spark could produce
tremendous pressures (Riess). Such velocities should explode
ordinary neon tubes, he thought. Why did this not happen?
Neon signs were low-pressure gas discharge tubes. The constant
electrical current, which passed through them "pinched" the gas into
a tightly constricted glowing thread, pulling it away from the tube
walls. Tubes operated with constant electrical currents never
exploded. But neon tubes were known to crack when the electrical
current was applied in a sudden impulse. This released a
tremendously explosive thrust ... and at such low pressures! This
meant that the velocities had to be incredibly rapid, since there
was practically no gas inside the tube.
Tom studied on. There were cases when lightning exploded massive
objects in which a small amount of air was trapped at normal
pressures. Such phenomena taught that electrical discharge in
impulses could be coupled with gases at normal pressures to produce
tremendous thrust. Furthermore, there were tradesmen who employed
this principle daily, when welding metals together.
The local welder coupled high current
impulses with various gases to weld metals together. He was told
that handheld welding apparatus often gave quite a "kick" in certain
applications. In addition, there were times when very massive metal
objects were thrown clear of the brilliant arc, propelled at high
speed by intense arc pressure.
Well then, he had all the information he needed. Several problems
would present themselves, but that was the "fun" of engineering.
Intense thrust was being developed in the welder's arc, and intense
heat. Any rocket reaction chamber, which employed electrical arcs,
would have to be made from new materials. The problem was not
impossible to solve. Ceramics might be the choice over metals
however strange that seemed at the time. This was new territory, and
Tom was designing something new.
According to the mathematical tables, which researchers had provided
in texts, the velocities of gas molecules in electrical arcs
increased with voltage. Higher voltage meant higher velocity
components. The "thickness" and "brightness" of the arc depended on
gas density and current. All three factors would produce an enormous
thrust when properly arranged. These thrusts would do better than
compare with those produced by chemical rockets. In a given volume
of system space, an electric arc propulsion unit would deliver
several more times the thrust of any chemical propulsion unit. This
was a staggering thought.
If this was true, why had no
professional designer ever tried to build an electrical rocket?
Such an electro-engine could be small, compact, and efficient,
exceeding the effectiveness of any chemical rocket. Such an engine
could travel to the stars. This scheme could be produced with
commonly available items. Local shops could supply the gases and arc
electrodes. Such a powerful rocket would not be difficult to
construct in a shop. The arc-flame of the small electrically powered
spacecraft would be white ... and small. It would offer aspects of
control not dreamed by even Goddard.
That night he dreamed of space travel. Each story seemed closer to
becoming real. He would build such an engine. He would both test it
and fly it. He would produce an engine that would change the way the
world thought of its upper space boundaries forever.
His next thoughts were to devise the controllers for his magickal
compact rocket engine. Electricity could be impulsed or continuously
applied. Thrust levels could be controlled by "valving" both the
electrical currents and gas volumes. Volumes of electricity could be
raised or reduced by rheostats. Valves could control the gas "fuel"
Also, if normal pressure gases produced
fabulous thrusts, and high-pressure gases continued to show thrust
increase, what would liquid gases provide?
Liquid gases, preferably of a heavy molecular mass, would provide
the very highest thrust levels. The scheme seemed perfect. It was
based on sound thinking. Were there any "weak links" in his
thinking? He examined every possible flaw, finding none. His tiny
little engine might lift a ship effortlessly into the liquid black
depths of sparkling space.
This strong response to a wall of textbook criticisms was one of
many manifesting their presence across the world. Empirical
researchers were already defying textbook restrictions on natural
dynamics, producing phenomena, which were anomalous by textbook
declarations. Tom had a design. His goal was now to develop
variations of the system. The goal was to produce the very greatest
thrust in the smallest system volume.
First in his awareness was the need to develop electrical power.
What compact system could provide the same currents as the welder's
heavy arc transformers? No engine could have that much mass and fly
aloft. Was there a way to store heavy currents and release them in
bursts to provide an equivalent arc welding current? Yes. He would
couple small high voltage induction coils to mica capacitors and let
the arc explosively burn across a spark gap.
Gas would be injected into the arc space where it would literally
explode into electrical plasma, being accelerated out of the
reactive area. A more continuous acceleration along the arc channel
would provide the most "complete" thrust. Small garage bench
experiments with heavy battery discharges proved the spark's ability
to "shoot" little pieces of tinfoil across the table. Here was a
tiny demonstration of the effect, which he sought.
The one problem which yet bothered his aesthetic sense, dealt with
the actual power source for the engine. In chemical rockets, the
fuels provide both the reactive explosion and the gaseous mass
simultaneously. This was their simple beauty and essential
advantage. An electrical rocket, a plasma rocket, relied on
electrical sources, which the gases did not produce. The ideal
situation would require a gas, or gaseous mixture, which could
produce electrical current for him.
Was there such a mixture, which he could
Here was no impasse. Here was an opportunity. The young dreamer was
a fine student. He juggled the variables. Chemical rockets had most
of their thrust coefficient on the mass side of the equation,
producing heavy showers of molecules at high temperatures. Plasma
rockets had most of their thrust coefficients on the velocity side
of the equation. When considered from their volume and total unit
mass, the preference seemed to fall toward the electrical rocket
As the increased need for thrust in chemical rockets increased,
their total mass increased. With electrical rockets, the power
generator reached a "fixed" unit mass. At a certain point in the
size ratios, the electrical rocket would win out in terms of
efficiency. The thrust equation swung back and forth toward each
system in an intriguing way!
He now thought only of reaction velocities. How fast did
electrically charged molecules actually travel? Much faster than the
molecules impelled by chemical reactions.
But, what would be the very highest
achievable velocity when using the plasma rocket principle?
It would be the velocity of light. No
data table even given by J.J. Thomson gave values that high.
Molecular velocities in chemical explosions ranged to about 3
kilometers per second, while those in explosive electrical
discharges could range up to 3000 kilometers per second.
If high enough electrical velocities could be obtained, would mass
cease being a necessary part of the thrust equation? Would a craft,
which powerfully discharges an electrical impulse just, lift itself
on its own field? Now this made him think beyond the ordinary
concept of rocketry. And here is where our story really begins.
Tom began gathering information in order to embellish his thoughts
in this avenue. The information came in the many "collections" left
by Victorian electrical experimenters.
Were there yet other unthought
"electrical" means by which to propel ships through the air
Why stop at using electrically
fired chemicals or gases?
Could electricity indeed propel
a craft by some strange interaction between fields?
Tom had seen high voltage static
machines in operation. Surmounted by bent metal pinwheels, these
produced violet flames while propelling the wheels around at rapid
rates. Here was a real "electrical thrust". Could pure electrical
discharge be used to make a ship move without any other propulsive
The real moment, where dream and reality were about to merge came in
school. Tom witnessed a very high vacuum electrical discharge tube
in operation during a physics class demonstration. Very high voltage
impulses of direct current were applied to the X-Ray tube. The heavy
wire lines connecting the tube to the induction coil were loose
enough to move. Whenever the electricity was applied to the tube,
Tom noticed that both wires "jumped" up. In addition, each time a
spark suddenly discharged to the tube, the wires "jumped". What was
this? When the wires moved did the tube also move? He asked the
instructor to do it again.
Tom was not looking at the tube at all. He was focusing his
attentions on the free mass, on the wires. The wires jumped each
time the impulse was applied to the tube. The sudden jump ceased
after the current continued. When the current was removed suddenly,
he also noticed a slight wire-jump. This latter jump was not as
strong as the initial one, but it was there nonetheless. For an
instant, his mind soared out toward black radiant space.
Was this exactly what he had been
thinking about, right there in front of class?
The electrical discharge inside this very high vacuum tube was pure
... a discharge of pure cathode rays. This was pure electricity
without any gas molecules to contaminate its progress. The cathode
rays were traveling at the very highest velocity to which any
particle could be accelerated in such a short space. And here,
outside the tube, was a propulsion effect. It was happening exactly
where he thought it would be found, in direct line with the free
Tom thought deeply on this idea. If electrical discharges of this
kind could be made to impulse into free space from a special "gun",
then the entire projecting system would move "upon" the extending
electrical field. The reaction would be a combined thrust produced,
not by mass explosions, but by a charge explosion into free space.
The reaction would be a propulsive reaction based on electrical
Cathode rays held the key ... the key to
So ... the jumping effect only worked when impulses were first
applied. Was the motion simply magnetic in action? Texts said they
were, but only an experiment would solve the noise in his head. He
was desperate to try this out for himself, at home in his shop. He
needed an induction coil of some strength. This was easy. Truck
ignition coils were plentiful. Complete with vibrating interruptive
switches, these units could produce quite a spark for any young
experimenter. He also needed a high vacuum discharge tube, an X-Ray
There might be many reasons for the "jumping wire" phenomenon, which
he observed. Applied wire current might be straightening out because
of magnetic field lines. But, how could these be strong enough to
move the heavy wires, being small. The high voltage wires of the
induction coil were barely conducting current at all. In fact,
within the X-Ray tube, there was practically no current!
Maybe this was some little-known electrostatic effect; something,
which happened when, wires were charged against a dielectric. Vacuum
was a dielectric. Maybe the effect happened with greater power in
more perfect vacuum. Maybe the effect was a simple electric rocket
effect in which light, ultraviolet, X-Rays, or some unknown
particles were flying in the opposite direction. Maybe the wires
jumped because the tube was propelled for an instant by reactive
particles flying from the wire to the air as invisible sparklets.
There were more thoughts on which his mind took defined paths. Like
the invisible cathode rays shooting along invisible lines, young
Tom's thoughts soared through space all around the experiment he had
seen the day before. The glorious power in these new thoughts lifted
him to such a height of inspiration that it was difficult for him to
do anything else. Just imagine! A rocket effect in metal conductors!
Would the whole unit, tube, spark coil, and wires, move through
space? So many possibilities. So many thoughts. There was only one
way to find out for sure.
Electrical discharge tubes could be obtained commercially in various
forms, being the popular science art forms of the century's turn.
Geissler Tubes were low-pressure gas tubes of sparkling beauty.
These could be ordered and obtained from hardware stores. These
bulbous glassmaker's wonders were curiously bent and coiled,
containing various phosphorescent chemicals. High voltage electric
streams produced brilliant colorations in these; a true wonder to
Another variety of the Geissler Tube was truly marvelous to
see in the dark.
These tubes were the miniature
electrical "textbooks" of a more elegant age. These tubes were often
used as curious centerpieces, the variety being truly Victorian and
exquisite in design. Specially treated flowers were poised on a
single wire electrode. Each flower was treated with special
phosphorescent chemicals. When voltage was applied the flowers
glowed in haunting reds, violets, blues, yellows, and oranges. The
stems and leaves sparkled with the most wonderful green, extending
their thorny sparks to the blue-gray glass tube walls.
While both of these varieties were beautiful phosphorescent display
tubes, what Tom wanted was something, which matched that which he
witnessed in class: a "hard vacuum" tube. The higher the vacuum, the
stronger the effect. He was now sure of this. The effect did not
occur in Geissler tubes or neon lights. As dangerous as it sounds
(and it is EXTREMELY dangerous!), young Brown obtained a small
"Coolidge-type" X-Ray tube.
It must be understood that, during this time period, small X-Ray
bulbs were not considered as dangerous as they are. One could order
and obtain both Geissler tubes from hardware stores and small X-Ray
tubes from local pharmacies. Tom was fortunate, using a small
capacity induction coil to activate the tube. This was bad enough,
but at higher voltages, the effects would have been deadly.
His first experiment would be to try the wire-jump effect for
himself ... at home.
He duplicated the arrangement, which he
first saw in his school. Applying the high voltage suddenly, the
wires jumped. He was amazed, but not satisfied. He had already
thought through much of the possible reasons why this might not be
what he wanted it to be. Now he wanted to see whether the whole tube
moved, wires and all. If it did, just the slightest amount, a new
world would be born. A new technology, a new science, and a new
transportation potential for humanity.
He allowed the tube a certain degree of friction-free movement on
the shop table. The impulse was applied. Wires jumped ... and the
tube jiggled. In an absolutely incredible manner, the phenomenon
seemed to be gaining strength. He was in a sweat now. He knew the
next step already. Preparing for this, his mind reeled. It was going
to happen. He knew it! The next experiment would clarify both the
phenomenon and his future. He expected to see propulsive motion.
The tube had to be suspended in a free-swinging manner. Hung in a
small pendulum arrangement, the electrically impulsed tube clearly
moved in a single direction. He was fascinated, thrilled, awestruck.
Unable to contain himself, he yelled, laughed aloud. Dancing around
the garage bench, he was the lone dancer in a victory, which
signaled the birth of an age.
When he finally composed himself, he began thinking with much
greater relief than he had during the last several weeks. For here,
here was a real mystery indeed. The tube was demonstrating real
translation through a fixed distance, without ANY visible reactants.
He counted X-Rays out of the puzzle; they had no mass at all.
There was no mistake, no "unknown
combination of known forces" here. No.
His intuitive skills were sharp. What he
was seeing was some kind of new field reaction. It involved the
longitudinal extension of electricity through a space. Somehow this
was the key to releasing the propulsive effects of electricity. Here
was propulsion with no mass at all!
The tube was now mounted on the end of a thin wooden rod,
counterbalanced, and suspended from a strong ceiling position. Once
again, as before, he electrically impulsed the tube. The
wonderstruck teenager saw a dream before his very eyes, as the tube
began to rotate the entire suspension rod! Each time he impulsed the
tube with a sudden jolt, the tube gained speed. The power was
cumulative. Each successive jolt drove the rig around with
The tube always moved in a specific direction, always with the
electropositive side forward. The new phenomenon inherently
contradicted all existing electrical theory in too many ways. He
focused his thoughts on the dielectric nature of the vacuum. After
all, the vacuum was a special kind of dielectric. It provided an
expansion space for the force lines along the charge flow ... a
longitudinal expansion. Perhaps the appearance of X-Rays was exactly
Nikola Tesla suggested so many years before.
were the particulate release of pure electricity, even more
fundamental than electrons.
The vacuum tube was acting as a "release valve" for some forgotten
feature of the electric force, without which no propulsive effect
would result. If the instantaneous charging of the plates inside the
tube produced expansive force lines to the environment, the effect
should have preferential directions with respect to geography. He
examined this possibility by noting the strength of each impulse and
its propulsive result with respect to compass directions. No
difference in the motional effect could be seen despite direction.
The whole tube always moved, electropositive plate forward,
regardless of compass direction.
The phenomenon circumvented Newton's third law in some mysterious
manner. Perhaps the release of high voltage electrical impulses in
hard vacuum tubes broke the laws, which bind objects together. Did
electrical impulses somehow disrupt the natural order in some way?
Could electrical impulses in vacuum tube "expanders" be modifying
In the mind of Thomas Brown, an entirely different
way to propel a spaceship through the deep was now being designed.
The phenomenon, which he had just demonstrated to his own
satisfaction, had no conventional equal. It was far from the engine
with which he had begun. Nevertheless, he was by no means
disappointed. On the contrary, what he discovered greatly
outstripped each of his initial proposals for a compact rocket
engine. The phenomenon brought him into a truly alien realm of
There were simply no previous examples or analogies on which to base
his theoretics. The closest to these effects were those fleeting
recollections made by an elusive Nikola Tesla. When discussing
electrical impulse, Tesla spoke of "special reactive forces". At the
time in which Tesla made these remarks he was not at liberty to
discuss the phenomenon or the technologies, which he had developed.
Certain facts now presented themselves to young Thomas Brown.
First, his engine needed no reactant nozzles at all. There was no
mass in this thrust. All he needed to supply was a steady barrage of
high voltage direct current impulses. Current was not even required
here. This made the requirements even more simple and elegant. A
manifold of high vacuum tubes could be coupled together to form
multiple reactions and far greater thrust. Perhaps he could redesign
the tubes to better focus and release the longitudinal thrust. There
were new thoughts and new technologies to develop - original
The dream space rocket engine was his now.
The young and pensive high school physics student had pushed back an
insurmountable wall of conventional objections and academic
restrictions, imagination providing the final thrust. His thrilling
observations became the heart of a revolution in electrical science;
one which seized the world of physics in its day. We have not heard
of the phenomena associated or the conditions of initial observation
only because theoreticians now consider it "impossible".
His thoughts now turned toward the future, his future. While
applying for colleges, he busied himself with meditations on
gravitation. He wondered if he had not, in fact, discovered one
great and mysteriously hidden gravity secret. Such a secret could be
cultivated into a world revolution. Such a secret could reach toward
the stars. Summoned by a pilot of the future, his engines could lift
an entire crew into the deep reaches of other worlds.
He was sure that his system would
successfully lift a spaceship through the heavy mantle of gravity
out to the sapphire edge of space.
Thomas Townsend Brown entered the California Institute of
Technology in 1922. He was a brilliant seventeen year old.
deliberate intentions, he tried desperately to gain the attention of
certain notable professors on staff. Robert Millikan was one
for whom he held great admiration. He believed that sharing his
experimental observations with Millikan would be fruitful. By this
time he had developed a substantial base of observations through his
home research to inspire others who were "far more capable than
himself' of studying his new electric force effect.
Passionate dreamers can never contain their minds. Dreamers seem as
impulsive as the energies with which they are involved. Tom simply
wished for the development of that space-drive engine so that
humanity could explore the great, unfathomable depths of radiant
black space. Had he known the ill manner in which Millikan behaved
toward the great
Nikola Tesla, he would ever
have wasted his time or heart's hope.
Millikan scoffed at Tesla when the latter claimed to have discovered
cosmic rays. When a few others corroborated some of these claims,
which Tesla made, Millikan would not yield. In fact, academe to the
bitter end, he made several refutations of the notion altogether.
When at last he could not maintain his stubborn ground, he himself
yielded, claiming to have discovered "new cosmic rays" of his own.
Therefore, when Tom was rejected by Millikan and several other staff
members, he was crushed. The biography of heralded academes usually
indicates that, when their dreams were rejected by their superiors,
they yielded under pressure. After such a period of ruthless
"hazing", they refuted and recanted all their deepest hearts dreams.
"Cleansed" of their obstructive romanticism, they find a sudden and
peculiar affection being extended toward them once again. Occupying
the remainder of their lives mocking other dreamers, they
successfully perform highly profiled technical minutiae, and ending
in highly honored vacuousness.
For Tom Brown such rejection was difficult to bear. Not one academe,
including the illustrious Robert Millikan, accepted Tom's ideas or
research work. The anomalous new electric force was, for them,
nonsense. The phenomenon had no place in the accepted academic
lexicon. He would not yield the romanticism. In this he saw the life
of true and noble science. Without passion there is nothing. The
small town boy dreamed the world of science. It was his whole life
and esteem. The famed persons, the romantic ideals of science and
its glory ... all of these formed his heart. Things did not go well
for him in California after these crushing rejections.
In this first collision with rigid academia, Tom received a precious
guidance. What he had was real. He knew it. Why would they not know
it? Were they afraid of truth, or just unworthy of its secrets?
Exposed to the cold, he now knew where to find the warmth. He would
never again give his honor toward those who would not take the time
to listen to or learn of his secret. Observing and feeling that
frigidity of response from academicians would trigger his
ever-cautious reflexes. He soon learned that the "rejection" pattern
was strangely predominant in places where he would least expect it:
in universities and research laboratories.
Tom Brown himself managed to remain insulated from the poison
of this contagious academic illness long enough to make legendary
advancements in research, taking gradual strength from the first
brush against the glacier, he suddenly realized what had occurred.
Perhaps Millikan was too busy having lunch those first few times.
The others were probably steered by Millikan's opinion of young
Brown, preferring the security of their poise to a casual
conversation with young students of great promise.
Whatever the case, Tom knew beyond all doubt that his discovery
would shake the foundations of science itself. With his simple
little garage experiment, he introduced enough imbalance into the
accepted lexicon to repel the greatest physicists. Tom witnessed
this curiously annoying, but amusing response among those whose
prejudices could not simply accept scientific truth.
Tom joyously transferred (1923) to
Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. Closer to the warmth of home, he no
longer felt that greatness was identified with great publicity. He
continued his research at higher levels of perfection with funds of
his own. Tom, no longer in need of any attention or honor, gradually
"opened up" to his physics professor after the latter learned of his
Describing his home laboratory
experiments and the phenomenon, which he had proven beyond all
doubt, Dr. Paul Biefield was greatly intrigued. And
encouraging. Tom's quiet dignity and confidence said everything,
which Dr. Biefield needed to see. Serious, sober, sincere. The
description of this strange effect greatly aroused curiosity. He
wished to see the effect for himself. There was a reason.
Dr. Biefield was once a classmate of Albert Einstein in
Switzerland, remaining a close colleague and friend throughout the
years. It was obvious to Dr. Biefield that Tom's electro-motional
effect was something profound. The phenomenon could not find
conventional explanation because no conventional expression had been
provided for its manifestation. The effect was a gravitational one.
Dr. Biefield and Tom both discussed how the momentary blurring of
electric and gravitational forces might have provoked an
With this discussion came a
long-standing friendship, which would forever change the life of
Thomas Townsend Brown.
Dr. Biefield now contended on behalf of Tom's discovery, maintaining
that he be encouraged to bring his work to the professional research
facilities which the College could provide. Tom was deeply touched,
the warmth cautiously returning toward the academic world once more.
Dr. Biefield believed that the "distinct gap" between electricity
and gravitation, which academia had fixed for so long, was
apparently violated in Brown's small tabletop experiment. Further
research evidenced consistencies in similar effects, which had been
observed in isolated incidents since the turn of the century. The
motional force effect was observed through the use of different
electrical apparatus. These observations were chronicled throughout
the years in several different journals.
Edward S. Farrow (November 1911) wrote an extensive report on
his own findings concerning gravity reduction. He observed that
ignition coils, attached to aerial wires and plates, lost weight.
When placed on accurate, nonmetallic scales and "fired", the entire
apparatus lost one-sixth of its weight.
Mr. Farrow performed these
demonstrations willingly and openly, allowing every portion of his
experiment to be dismantled. Furthermore, he encouraged others to
attempt reproducing the result. Although with weaker force, the
effect was observed in these instances. The difference for the
strength of his demonstration had to do with a specially developed a
rapidly rotating "spark wheel" which he kept enclosed. Mr. Farrow
believed that his apparatus was nullifying the local gravity field,
which he termed the "vertical component".
He considered gravitation to be a
special electrical effect, which acted within neutral matter. At
about this same time, a small antigravitational device was
independently developed in Paris. In this, a highly charged mica
disc spun at high rate and levitated when electrostatically charged
Dr. Francis Nipher (March 1918)
conducted extensive research on a modified Cavendish Experiment.
In the classical reproduction of the experiment, he arranged for the
gravitational attraction of free-swinging masses to a large fixed
mass. Dr. Nipher's modification included the electrification of the
fixed mass. When the fixed mass was highly charged by an
electrostatic machine and shielded in a cage, the free-swinging
masses yielded unexpected and inexplicable motional effects.
The free-swinging masses first showed reductions in their
gravitational attraction when the fixed mass was slightly charged.
At a certain charged stage, the free-swinging masses were not
attracted at all. Beyond a critical charge limit, Dr. Nipher showed
the complete reversal of gravitational attractions. Therefore,
shielded electrostatic fields were demonstrably effecting
gravitational modifications in controlled experiments, Dr. Nipher
considering that electrostatic force and gravitation were absolutely
linked. Dr. Nipher's reports were thorough and extensive, forming a
real research base on which to perform further research.
George S. Piggot (July 1920) designed, built, and utilized a
fantastically potent electrostatic machine with which he observed
powerful electrogravitic effects. The device was heavily encased and
"dried out" with high-pressure carbon dioxide gas. With this
dramatically dehumified static generator, Mr. Piggot observed a
strange electro-gravitational effect. It was first seen, the result
of accidental occurrences while performing unrelated electrical
Mr. Piggot was able to suspend heavy silver beads (112 inch in
diameter) and other materials in the air space between a charged
sphere and a concave ground plate when his generator was fully
charged at 500,000 electrostatic volts. The levitational feat was
only observed when the charged sphere was electropositive.
The Piggot effect was clearly not a purely electrical phenomenon. If
it were, then the presence of the grounded plate would have
destroyed the effect. The very instant in which a discharged passed
to ground, every suspended object would have come crashing down.
But, without the ground counterpoise, the levitational effect was
not observed. Mr. Piggot believed that he was modifying the local
gravitational field in some inexplicable manner, the effect being
the result of interaction between the static field generator and
some other agency the ground.
Piggot further stated that heated metal marbles fell further away
from the field center than cold ones. These suspended marbles
remained in the flotation space for at least 1.25 seconds even after
the static generator ceased rotating. The marbles fell very slowly
after the field was completely removed; a noticeable departure from
normal gravitational behavior.
Mr. Piggot stated that suspended objects were surrounded by a
radiant "black belt". The surrounding space was filled with the
ephemeral electric blue lumination common with very powerful
electrostatic machines. Many academicians explained such phenomena
Employing electro-induction theories, it
was stated that the effects were,
"simple outcomes of highly charged
conditions in conductive media".
The suspension of matter in Piggot's
experiment was explained by academes to be the simple result of
charge attraction and gravitational balance. Accordingly, charged
metal balls would achieve their own balancing positions as long as
the field was operating.
Piggot stated that tiny blue spots could be seen running all over
the suspended metal marbles, evidence of electrical discharging into
the air. This being the case, no net attractive charge could ever
develop, simply leaking away with every second into the surrounding
air. Considering that the intense field was "grounded" to a concave
electrode plate, no consistent charge condition could develop in
such a space.
Obvious similarities are noted when
considering all these cases, the electrogravitic action being
stimulated by intense electrostatic fields. Effects developed by
Piggot were entirely similar to those observed by Nikola Tesla, who
employed high voltage electrostatic impulses.
The Piggot device certainly discharged its tremendous charge in a
rapid staccato-like fashion to the ground plate. The rate of this
disruptive unidirectional field would be determined by considering
the parameters of the sphere and the concave ground plate. Judging
from the actual capacities involved, and the sizable free air space,
certainly it was a very rapid impulse rate.
Nikola Tesla observed and described the action of such
staccato electrostatic impulses on matter in Colorado Springs;
particularly on the levitation of dust particles. He later described
a heavier than air ship, which he said, was entirely driven by
electrical energies, lacking propellers or jets. There are those
legendary reports by those who claimed to have seen this device in
operation, which have surfaced. An elderly gentleman, the son of a
local rancher, described what his father claimed to have seen one
night several miles from
Tesla's experimental station in Colorado
Tesla was seen standing on a platform, surrounded by a purplish
corona, some thirty feet above the ground. The contrivance had a
small coil aft, and was entirely covered underneath with a smooth
surface of sheet copper. The platform was perhaps two feet in total
depth, being crammed with components. Tesla strode over to the
platform, stood before a control panel, and whisked aloft in a crown
of white sparks. The excessive sparks subsided with increased
distance form the ground, often arcing to metal fencing. Tesla went
out of his way to avoid the numerous metallic ranch fencing beneath
his aerial course.
What originally attracted the rancher out into the night air was a
stallion who had become spirited by the strange buzzing craft. It
was said the Tesla often delighted in soaring through the night air
for hours each night. He was dressed in his characteristic garb,
sans top hat. Tesla became enthralled with the operation of his
flying platform, traveling to great distances. Tapping energy
directly from his Magnifying Transmitter, the device had an
unlimited range. Others had witnessed these strange midnight
journeys across the ranchlands.
Dr. Biefeld was familiar with all of the experimental papers, and
many of the legends. The growing electrogravitic effects
bibliography provided ample reference material by which it was
possible to focus in upon the effect which Tom Brown discovered ...
the "Brown Effect".
Einstein utilized the concept of distorted space to explain the
appearance of all forces. According to this theory, there should be
various means by which to bridge each of the forces. Could this
effect, which Tom Brown had discovered, not be the "bridge" between
electrical force and gravitational force? Einstein said this bridge
must exist. Now Tom had a good theoretical model with which to work.
If gravitation was truly the result of a distorted space, then high
voltage electric shock was somehow further modifying that
Through Dr. Biefeld's kind and generous support, Tom performed
hundreds of experiments with various highly charged tubes and
capacitors in stringent laboratory conditions. These experiments
were intent on measuring the force exerted by high voltage charged
tubes, capacitors, and solids in free space. Charged objects, rather
than vacuum tubes, were suspended just as Brown had done in his
smaller garage experiments. Professional laboratory instruments
measuring every aspect of the motional effect and its epiphenomena,
it was now possible to document and film the effect for all to see.
With the new instrumentation and enhanced laboratory access, several
details in his strange electric force effect now became apparent. In
1924, he mounted two spheres of lead on a glass rod and suspended
them by two strong insulating supports, forming a swing-like
pendulum. When each sphere was oppositely and highly charged with
sudden impulses of 120 Kilovolts the entire pendulum swung sideways
to a maximum point ... and very slowly came back to rest. The
electropositive sphere led the motion once again.
What Tom now saw was truly astonishing.
The pendulum literally remained
suspended in the space for a long time. There were two clearly
observable phases in the whole action. The "excitation phase" took
less than five seconds. The "relaxation phase" required thirty to
eighty seconds, coming back to rest in a series of "fixed steps".
Astounding! Here was visible proof that a distorted space had power
over matter, constraining its movements as if it were solid matter.
In fact, Tom now recognized something of his original thoughts
concerning the vacuum tube rotor.
As a student so many years before, he had accurately sensed that
cathodic expulsions were producing a thrust without mass. Now he
understood that the "missing mass" surrounded the device. It was
space itself, distorted by electrostatic means. In this condition,
space behaved better than any chemical fuel rocket. Space was
everywhere available! All one needed to do would be to distort or
"warp" that space.
Thrust would simply be the result of
creating the distorted condition.
Completing university work in 1926, Tom Brown became a staff
member of Swasey Observatory (Ohio). There he remained four
years. During this time he was married. Maintaining his experimental
passions, Tom continued his work on electro gravity while teaching
and performing the sundry duties of instructor.
Research never far from his heart, he continued his work privately.
His next amazing development came when he replaced his "classical"
rod-connected double spheres with a more compact and commercial
capacitor stack. This capacitor consisted of alternating layers of
aluminum and paraffin-saturated cloth. Unlike conventional
electrical capacitors, these aluminum foil layers did not
interdigitate. Only the end metal plates were charged during the
experiment. The entire stack was coated with asphalt and housed in
Bakelite, the end terminals protruding as large binding posts.
He made several of these for continuous laboratory testing. When
these capacitors were electrically impulsed, the space distortion
effect spread throughout their interior. This spreading effect
produced greater pendulum swings than he had ever seen. These
capacitors absorbed the applied impulse for a much longer time. They
also required a much longer recovery time before reaching their
"rest point". These devices stayed suspended longer during and after
their electrifications. Tom Brown observed persistent space
distortion with this apparatus. Five minutes were required before
these capacitors reached complete relaxation.
The space distortion effect was now clarifying itself. It actually
blended both the Coulomb electric force law and Newton's
gravitational force law in a most curious manner. He measured the
tantalizing variables, which were required to produce maximum
movements. He found that longer impulse durations required longer
relaxation times. Greater dielectric mass in the capacitors
amplified the thrusts. Increased voltages amplified the thrust. He
also verified that electrical current had nothing to do with the
distortion of space at all. Tom estimated the current in these
gravitator cells at 3.7 microamps: virtually a "zero" value. It was
the electrostatic impulse, which effected the space "warp".
His analysis of the actual effect was quite simple. The high voltage
impulse was directed through the body of the entire capacitor stack
much like a shock-front, from the electropositive end to the
negative end. The dielectric material in which the plates were cast
was mildly electro-conductive. The spacewarping effect spreading
faster than electrical currents, riding the electrostatic shockfront
through the capacitor. The result was a space, which remained
distorted for nearly one minute. The entire capacitor mass evidenced
the subsequent motional effect in that region of distorted space.
Tom Brown saw the manner in which space distortion effects could
actually move matter. The idea that a strong electrostatic shockwave
could actually "warp" space was penetrating. Clearly, the space warp
effect suffused the entire capacitor, continuing to collapse rigid
space for several seconds. In some cases, with the right dielectric
mixture, the collapse continued for several minutes.
During this time, any matter in or near the collapsing space was
drawn into and through the collapsing warp. The warp had peculiar
boundaries, extending around the capacitor to some extent. In this
collapsing space, matter was moved. Here was the "missing momentum"
which was evidenced as a thrust. These improvements were so totally
different and new, that he renamed the components. He called them
Gravitator effectiveness was related to voltage impulse. Like a
saturation, rippling through the gravitator, the high voltage
produced a continuously distorted space. It was a saturating shock
wave effect, which continuously expanded throughout the mass of the
gravitator for a good long while after the impulse had ceased. A
prolonged space distortion dragged the gravitator. The space
distorting wave front reached a maximum state until total saturation
was achieved. Once the gravitator had absorbed the distortion, it
No amount of additionally applied voltage had any motional effect on
the gravitator after this point. There was a defined reliance on
dielectric substance. Space dynamically interacted in the dielectric
with the electrostatic shock. This is exactly what he had understood
when first examining his X-Ray tube apparatus. The effect was indeed
entirely reliant on the nature of the dielectric. The dielectric
substance provided the "release mechanism" for the space warping
Eventually Tom Brown developed a simple mathematical relationship,
which accurately described the successive actions taking place in
the gravitator. He then undertook the improvement of gravitators by
first formulating a new dielectric "mash" of litharge (lead oxide)
and Bakelite. Multiple aluminum plates were set into molds, the
dielectric matter being melted and poured in over them.
The whole assembly was coated with
asphalt and housed in Bakelite. These units could be mass-produced
and operated with greater efficiency than his early models. Once
cooled, the improved dielectric block was electrified with impulses
of specific duration. These gravitators successfully produced a
remarkably strong kinetic drive.
Hundreds of these gravitators were now produced for experiments and
demonstrations. Gravitators developed terrific and continuous
thrusts while the impulse was being absorbed. Placed on opposed ends
of a balanced insulator, they formed a rotor. Equipped with
slip-ring commutators, they spun with remarkable power when
electrified. These results were photographed. The blurred image of
the gravitators and their out-bowing support wires is an
unprecedented wonder to see.
Tom utilized several gravitators "in tandem". Together, these
maintained the drive effect. "Active" gravitators provided thrust
while the "spent" gravitators relaxed. It was possible to configure
a gravitator cadence in order to produce a constant thrust. Similar
to a multiple piston engine, a continuous thrust of great force was
demonstrated. The attainment of his original dream had been in part
realized for earth-bound service. He now had truly unique
electrogravitic engines. The large impulse gravitators succeeded in
driving model vehicles around his laboratory. Tom built large model
trains and cars, outfitted with multiple gravitators. These powerful
models operated on wheels.
When properly impulsed in sequence, the
gravitator provided continuous thrust, each pulling quite a load
across the room.
Dr. Brown designed, built, and tested special linear motors for
maritime applications. His ship models worked well in water, mass
not being an objectional feature in ships. Large model ship engines
demonstrated a terrific drive effect through water. In addition, Tom
discovered that distorted spaces also produced "ripple free" water
movements, a fringe benefit of using gravitator drive. He calculated
that larger multi-ton gravitators could silently drive ships across
the seas with minimal electrical power requirements.
In addition, such drive engines could more efficiently use fuel,
since the space warp eliminated all seawater drag. The entire
engine, along with specified parts of the hull, was enveloped in the
spacewarp. Thrust was produced throughout the interior of the
gravitator as designed. But at stronger intensities and with
specific space-shaping designs, the space warp could be projected
outside of the engines so that even the seawater moved with the
ship. In this case, the ship simply slid through a frictionless
water environment. The thrust effect flowed along with the ship's
Whether in water or free space, the general thrust effect was
curious when closely examined. It relied on the distortion of space,
not the medium in which motion was produced. Everything in the
distorted space moved along with that distortion. These devices
worked with great effectiveness on land and sea. The thrust of these
gravitators contended with other engine designs. He hoped to develop
drives for airplanes and, eventually, his originally dream.
Next came a series of "rotary gravitators". Mounted on long axles,
these massive cylinders were so configured to continually saturate,
move, and relax with every applied electrostatic cycle. Dr. Brown
described the kinetic efficiency of these space warping
"self-excited" motors. The thrust provided by these rotary units
vastly exceeded the electrostatic impulse power required to initiate
and maintain their rotation. These motors developed one million
times the kinetic force of the stimulating electrical input.
They were "self-exciting" because they relied on the collapse of
space itself to move their mass forward.
Critics again, playing the old conventional electric game, insisted
that his motional effects were the result of "electric wind". He
submerged each of his designs in large tanks of oil, only to find
that the gravitators worked with increased power! The oil, acting as
dielectric, actually magnified the space warp effect beyond the
When all such tests on his primary engines were completed, it was
decided that he obtain an American Patent. Trundling off all of his
meticulously prepared applications to the Registry, his hopes "ran
high". Unfortunately, his claim was immediately rejected. The
official cause of rejection had to do with "improper terminology".
The inability or purposeful unwillingness to recognize
world-shattering technology makes its strongest stand at the United
States Patent Office. The screening process, which discerns and
separates "dangerous" technologies from "consumer" technologies, is
very much in place. Those familiar faces who are seen searching the
daily flood of patent applications, report back to nameless
superiors. The paper chase does so at the behest of the old
established money. Inventors of the early Twentieth Century learned
all too late that the world markets which exist beyond American
shores are far more interested in revolutionary technology than
those here having agendas of their own.
Those old elites who coerce national policies and declarations of
war to protect their foreign investments do not waste time
destroying new technologies, which potentially usurp their pedestals
of power. Nevertheless, inventors take note both foreign investors
and markets are far more ready and able to implement every new
developments, which emerge from the sea of dreams.
No doubt the experimental results of Dr. Brown were sufficient
evidence that a revolution had indeed arrived; one, which certain
highly stabilized dynasties did not wish to see, proliferated.
Disappointed but undaunted, he applied in England for a patent. Was
it not curious that there, he was immediately granted patent 300.311
on 15 November 1928!
In this wonderful disclosure, he recounts his original Coolidge
X-Ray tube experiment. Each of his experimental arrangements is
preserved in developmental stages. This patent is a true "textbook"
on electro-gravity, Dr. Brown openly stating that electrified
dielectrics moved as whole units through space without measurable
reaction. He also indicates that, in this condition, Newton's
Third Law of motion is apparently violated.
He was granted an American patent
thereafter for his rotary "electrostatic motor" in 1930 (1.974.483).
While working with the gravitator, Dr. Brown discovered that its
behavior as a pendulum varied literally "with the phases of the
moon". In addition, there were startling effects, which the sun
evidently impressed on the gravitator during its charge-discharge
Whether solar or lunar, it was clear
that natural gravitational field conditions were observably
affecting local space conditions right before his eyes. The peak
maxima and minima of the gravitator varied so much during full moon
phases, that he was able to chart the performance against the
celestial activities with great precision. After acquiring so much
data, he was able to predict what celestial conditions were
occurring without visually sighting them. This is when the military
became intrigued with his work. A new phase of Dr. Brown's career
Remember that gravitators, as pendulums, do not behave as ordinary
masses. The mass of a gravitator is modified by the electrostatic
impulse, forcing a new interaction with gravitation. The gravitator
rises during the electrostatic excitation pulse, doing so rather
rapidly and discontinuously. When carefully observed, the "rise"
phase consists of several "graded steps".
Once through this "stepped rise", the
gravitator manifests a "tension" while held in its maximum position.
The gravitator appears to be in a fluidic channel while suspended at
an angle. In this levitated position, the gravitator "bobs" several
times. After the shockwave has saturated its dielectric thoroughly,
the gravitator begins its lengthy "fall" back to the rest point.
Here, more than during the rise phase, one most clearly observes the
"rest steps" which last for several minutes.
The discovery identified the number and position of spatially
disposed "rest steps" with the positions of sun and moon. In more
refined optical examinations, one could even discern the effect of
certain planetary configurations on the gravitator. These fixed
space "slots" became the most intriguing discovery since his
original observation of the electrogravitic interaction.
In order to test the electrogravitic hypothesis, he was forced to go
into "extreme" locations. He discovered that the celestial space
warping effect appeared without loss of strength even in very deep
caverns. Here was an effect, which was decidedly not reducible to
electrostatic effects alone. No, this was very obviously an
The only measurable and penetrating
"force" in the cavern was gravitation. Enclosed on all sides by
solid walls of conductive rock, the cave effectively formed a
Faraday Cage. No net electrostatic field could be determined that
far down. The combination of solar and lunar warped spaces was
evidently "bathing" the earth.
Terrestrial space, being thus bathed in transient space warps, was
constantly changing its "symmetry". It was not homogeneous.
Along with this change in space
symmetries, there were constant variations in gravitational
potential in every locale. The effects could not be detected by
inertial instruments alone. It could only be detected in
electrostatically activated instruments. There, an interaction was
taking place; one in which gravity and electrostatic charge produced
strongly observed motional effects.
On retrospect, Dr. Brown discovered that
several professional observers had measured these "anomalies" and
discounted them. Using special string torsion equipment, highly
charged, their instruments gave "perplexing" and inconsistent
results. In 1930 he was employed in the Naval Research Laboratory
Between the years 1931 and 1933 his
research in dielectrics became classified information. New effects
were now observed in electrical systems. Immobile capacitors
evidenced fluctuations in field strength throughout the day.
He first observed that all charged
capacitors revealed fluctuations, which varied with both solar and
lunar cycles. Relative space gravitational effects registered with
strength in both capacitor pendulums and immobile capacitors.
Extremely basic instrumentation were thus capable of delivering
celestial information to observers, the electrostatic fluctuations
evidencing sudden "events" of unknown significance.
Critics claimed that these events were
simple "internal noise" effects. Brown relocated to a bunker-like
concrete test facility and immersed his instruments in refrigerants.
The instruments worked with greater strength and finer precision.
The signals were actually amplified. Silence is golden.
These were the first recorded instances where gravitational "waves"
had been scientifically determined with great accuracy. These
experiments were first performed in very heavily shielded ground
level buildings. The Naval Research Laboratory funded his research
between 1937 and 1939, establishing underground gravity wave
measurement stations in caverns and mineshafts. These experimental
stations, in Ohio and Pennsylvania, remained highly classified for
This information on gravity waves was considered by Brown as proof
of Einstein's predictions concerning gravitational waves. The work
was presumably classified because of the possible implementation of
the sensors in warfare. In his underground stations, Brown measured
daily changes in sun and moon. Despite the extreme depth of his
apparatus, the signals continued manifesting in their strength. The
results of this work yet remains classified, though Brown published
certain of these on his own after the World War.
Identifying his secret underground systems as "gravity wave
detectors", Brown was forging new scientific and technological
ground. Greatly appreciated by the military, he remained in their
secure employ for several years.
During this period of time, Dr. Brown also discovered several
remarkable characteristics of matter in which was indicated
previously unrecognized gravitic interactions.
He found that gravitational distortions actually altered the
electrical resistance of matter. He made his own large carbon
resistors by coating long porcelain cylinders with lampblack. These
were scored with a rotary cutter, the resultant resistor being a
fine carbon "ribbon" measuring over 500 Megohms. With these it was
possible to show remarkably strong electrogravitic effects. These
signal devices outperformed the capacitor detectors in signal
strength and overall response characteristics.
In this wonderful interaction, Dr. Brown perceived that
gravitational fluctuations and carbon were intimately linked. He
later dared to speculate that certain physiological states might be
caused by space warp effects. These, acting on the carbon of the
body, produced symptomatic effects of nausea and malaise. In other
more neurologically sensitive individuals, such interactions might
intensify into perceptual distortions and anxieties.
It was the possible "organismic
interaction" between physiological states, perceptual states, and
gravitational warps which caused Naval researchers to study Dr.
Brown's reports with now greater intent. The NRL had mysteriously
pursued every aspect of perceptual science since this time period.
Experimenters developed highly complex equipment for measuring
gravitational radiation during the 1960's. These large and highly
funded academic installations, massive aluminum cylinders and
ceramic strain gauges, never registered the definitive signals
observed in Dr. Brown's elegantly simple apparatus. Since that time
others have observed and confirmed Brown's findings (Hodowanec).
The Brown gravity wave detectors
represents a new astronomical tool which yet awaits academic
The increasing financial pressures of America's Great Depression
forced Dr. Brown to leave the NRL, sign with the Naval Reserve, and
join the Civilian Conservation Corps in Ohio. In 1939 Dr. Brown
became a lieutenant in the Reserve and, after brief employment with
the Glenn L. Martin Company, was directed toward the Bureau
of Ships. There he worked on the magnetic and acoustic aspects of
It was during this time that Dr. Brown was to embark on an
adventure, which would alter the path of his life forever. Many of
the details and facts have been pieced together in a patchwork of
intrigues. Gleaned from several reputable science sources, the
incident reached public awareness as the "Philadelphia Experiment".
What sequence of events triggered the Naval Research Laboratories to
investigate the possibility of optically "cloaking" vessels of war?
It all began when several Naval researchers were asked to
investigate a peculiar phenomenon, which was plaguing a classified
arc welding facility. This facility was classified because it
protected a new Naval process for fabricating very durable armor
plated hulls. The spot-welding process employed an incredibly
intense, high amperage discharge. The process was similar to modern
MIG welding, but was conducted on a titanic scale. Electrical power
for this welding process was supplied by a massive capacitor bank
charged to high voltage. Several steel plates could be thoroughly
welded by this process, the metal seams absolutely interpenetrated
at the weld points.
So intensely dangerous was this electrical discharge that personnel
were restricted from the site when once the parts had been
configured for the weld. Hazardous charge conditions being the least
worrisome aspect of the process, X-Ray energies were released in the
blinding blue-white arc. Applied by a heavily insulated mechanical
arm, the arc was pressed to the plates by remote control, as power
was stored in the capacitor bank. The safety signal being given, a
lightning-like discharge absolutely rocked the facility. Radiation
counters measured the intense release of X-Rays. The process was a
new advance in Naval technology.
Neither the extreme electrical or radiation hazards obstructed
deployment of the system to other Naval facilities. Safety
precautions were at maximum levels. Workmen faced no hazard outside
the welding chamber. But another group of strange phenomena began
plaguing the facility. Phenomena, which had no reasonable
explanation at all. Researchers examined the site, separately asked
workmen to confirm the rumors they were hearing, and watched the
process for themselves in the control booth.
What they saw was truly unprecedented. With the electrical blast
came an equally intense "optical blackout". The sudden shock of the
intense electric weld impulse was indeed producing a mysterious
optical blackening of perceptual space, an effect that was thought
to be ocular in nature.
This peculiar "blackout" effect was
believed to be a result of intense and complete retinal (rhodopsin)
bleaching, a chemical response of the eye to intense "instantaneous"
light impulse. This was the initial conventional answer. The more
outrageous fact was that the effect permeated the control room,
causing "retinal blackout" even when personnel were shielded by
several protective walls.
Any effect, which could permeate walls and render personnel
incapable of sensation in this manner, could be developed into a
formidable weapon. The wall-permeating blackout was a neurological
response, which paralyzed the whole physiology, rendering it
incapable of response to outside stimuli. So it was thought at this
point. The research was earning and acquiring new levels of military
classification by the day. Here was a possibly radiated phenomenon,
which temporarily neutralized neural sensation, transmission, and
The weapons experts knew that any electric radiance, which could be
substituted for a nerve gas, would offer a new military advantage.
An extraordinary means for deploying the effect, the horrid energy
could be "beamed" to any site. If properly controlled, entire
platoons could be rendered unconscious in a single "swiping flash".
An unfortunate victim of such exposures was a certain William
Shaver. Mr. Shaver worked as a Naval arc welder with much
earlier and smaller hand-operated versions of this system. These
systems employed intense impulses of low repetition frequency. After
repeated exposures to this impulse energy, he began freely
hallucinating. The result of neuronal damage, the centers of his
will began shredding away.
This otherwise stable man ultimately lost his grips on reality,
writing hundreds of pamphlets throughout his remaining years on the
frightening topic of "beings from the underworld". It was
subsequently discovered that exposure to sudden electrical impulses
of intense potential and extremely low frequency produces a deadly
nausea, in some cases even the neurological damage leading to
Careful examination of the effect before the NRL now proved
perplexing. First, the "blackout effect" could be photographed as
well as experienced. Therefore it was not a mere neurological
response to some mysterious radiance. The blinding discharge was
doing something to space itself. Researchers were now drawn into
this project with a deep fascination. The "blackout" effect drew
equally intense interest by Naval officials for obvious military
reason. Careful study of research publications funded by NRL grants
reveals an intense preoccupation with all such perception-related
But there were "other aspects" of the phenomenon which were
chilling. Bizarre rumors were being shared by certain of the
original weld-site workmen. Remember, these men were on the site
throughout the period, which proceeded the project's classification.
They were privy to certain other phenomena, which had no rational
Personnel hoisted hull materials and braced the pieces in composite
arrangements for the discharge operation to commence. The warning
alarm sounding, all workers and inspection teams promptly left the
site, frequently dropping tools and other implements where they
stood. Capacitor charging required several minutes. The switch
thrown, a tremendous rocking explosion shook the site. The discharge
produced the blackout effect, and when the room was declared
officially "clear", workers returned to the chamber.
Workmen began noticing that tools and other weighty items, left on
the floor or around the chamber, were somehow "misplaced" during the
heavy arc discharge process. Imagining that these tools had been
thrown into corners or possibly driven into walls by the
room-rocking blasts, workers searched the entire welding facility.
The tools and other materials could simply not be found (Puharich).
Now the mystery was intensifying to a degree, which demanded a
complete study of the phenomenon from its first observation. Workmen
were called in to report what they had seen, felt, and experienced.
Repeated stories matched to such a degree that the "rumors" were now
taken as "personal testimony". The entire proceedings were so highly
classified that military agents were not even aware of the study.
What workmen told examiners was that their tools and other site
materials were "disappearing", and disappearing "for good".
Foremen had scolded and ridiculed them repeatedly about this loss of
materials and tools until experiencing it for themselves. One fact
was clear, when the alarm blew and the discharge exploded, objects
disappeared. Where they went, none could say. High-speed films
proved that the effect was real. Objects were placed on pedestals
near the discharge arc.
On discharge, the objects
dematerialized. The films proved it. They were certainly not "thrust
away" at high speeds, or even "impacted" into walls by the intense
arc blast. At first again, the conventional answers came forth. The
blackout effect was seen as a mystifying radiant energy, possibly a
specific variety of X-Rays. These rays had power to both neutralize
human neurological response and disintegrate matter in its immediate
vicinity. Here was the possible "death ray" for which the military
had long been searching.
The Second World War was raging, a
possible second "theater" was developing in the Pacific, and this
sort of fundamental discovery was enormous in military potential. To
end the war was the aim. The only aim.
If this effect could be developed into a weapon, it would be
deployed instantly thereafter. A weapons program of this kind would
require the nation's most eminent scientists, and levels of secrecy,
which demanded the very highest stringency. Several Naval personnel
were summoned for this study. Dr. Brown was requested to examine
"the phenomenon". His knowledge of "dielectric stress" phenomena and
the activities associated with arc discharges made him a perfect
candidate. Keeping him "in the blind" concerning their ultimate
hopes for this new discovery would not be easy. He "had a name" for
being the dreamer.
When Dr. Brown reviewed the material, his conclusions were
strikingly different from those, which others gave. While academes
adamantly insisted that the observed dematerializations were the
result of "irradiation" and subsequent vaporization, no such
evidence for the "vaporizations" could ever be found. Careful
analysis of weld-chamber atmospheres proved negative in these
regards. No gasified metals were detected in the room air throughout
the discharge event. Truly mystifying. The NRL had to know more.
Dr. Brown was sure he knew what was happening here. Despite the fact
that he had never observed these effects, his intuition taught him
well. Though in his early experimentation, he never experienced any
of these blackout effects, but Sir William Crookes had seen
this very thing. Within the action space of his now famed high
vacuum tube, Sir William beheld a curious sight.
There, suspended over the cathode, was a
black space, which was actually radiant. The radiance extended
beyond the tube walls in certain special instances. Sir William had
no difficulty accepting the fact that this was a "space-permeating"
blackness, a radiance having far greater significance than a mere
physical phenomenon. Crookes believed this radiance was a spiritual
gateway, a juncture between this world and another dimension.
In the blackout phenomenon Dr. Brown yet recognized the signs that
space distortions were taking place. What was the upper limit in
strength of these space distortions? What other bizarre anomalies
would they manifest? His own small gravitators operated through high
voltages now considered "small". When compared with those used in
the new welding site, they were minuscule.
Nevertheless, his experimentation proved
the effects of small space warps. Material dragging was one such
anomaly. In short, he believed that every anomalous inertial
behavior could be traced to such space distortions. In studying the
entire effect, no single part was unimportant. Dr. Brown knew that
the massive hulls played their part. They were somehow "spreading
out" the electrical field and giving it a specific shape. The
electric arc, focused onto the hull by the mechanical applicator was
the formidable field source.
But something "extra" was occurring.
Another realm of realities was entering
the scene where arc discharges blasted through the welding chamber.
He was the only one, perhaps with two others in the nation, who
would propose that the phenomenon was the result of an interaction,
which was "electrogravitic" in nature.
These were electrogravitic phenomena.
Associates reviled his thoughts and rejected his analysis of the
problem. But the military needed answers. If Dr. Brown could bring
them closer to their weapons goal, his explanations would take
precedent. Acquiring the complete attention and respect of very
highest military specialists, he was asked to formally address their
small and elite corps.
Dr. Brown very casually described what he strongly believed was
happening, citing his own work and familiarity with such phenomena.
While his own experimental apparatus never produced spatial
distortions of this extreme intensity and focus, he nevertheless
observed similar effects, which had power to move matter. Having no
conventional electrical explanation, the only resolution was found
in the Einsteinian proposals concerning electrical and
gravitational force unity.
Einstein had already predicted that intense gravitational fields
would produce optical blackouts. But his theory involved the huge
masses of collapsing stars. Total blackout phenomena are
theoretically achieved only when extremely dense matter is
compressed or pinched in stars, producing black holes. Masses alone
could not be whirled into producing the intense effect, which
intense electrical impulses had seemingly achieved. But was it a
true black hole effect, or something entirely distinct?
Einstein's work toward unifying electrical and gravitational fields
through space geometries never found completion on paper. But the
Naval experiment had proven the essential correctness of his
thoughts on the topic. Perhaps tiny black hole phenomena might have
been achieved in miniature when stimulated by intense electrical
fields. This mystifying effect was the most intense electrogravitic
interaction purposely, though accidentally, ever produced in
technical history. The military assembly was absolutely in awe.
Dr. Brown continued to describe what was occurring in and around the
arc channel. The channel itself was producing its own "hard" vacuum
in stages. Though occurring in atmospheric pressure, the explosive
force of the plasma arc had thrust all atmospheric gases out of the
arc in its first few microseconds of formation. The full force of
the blast was now occurring across a vacuum dielectric. The vacuum
actually hindered the complete discharge of the capacitor bank for a
few more microseconds, allowing the potential to build beyond those
effects observed in weak lightning channels.
It was in a sudden avalanche that the entire discharge occurred
across this vacuum space, warping space through an electrogravitic
interaction. The interaction was directly related to the voltages,
the dielectric volume, and the brevity of the impulse. The normal
density of inertial space was being instantaneously pierced, the arc
literally "punching a hole" through the continuum.
The explosive vacuum arc set the stage
for "uncommon" observations. Surrounding the intense electrical
impulse, space itself was collapsing; space and everything within
that space. The strange blackout effect would be expected if all
available light was being bent into the arc channel. Incapable of
escaping the distortion of space, the blackout effect spread
outward. Provided the distortion was intense enough, a specific
large volume of space would be "drawn" in toward the arc channel.
The interaction took a few microseconds to effect. There was no
escaping its presence.
More volumes of available light would vanish into that growing
distortion until a maximum blackout volume manifested itself. Walls
could not stop the effect because it was not a radiance, not a
radiant electrical phenomenon. Space itself was literally being
"warped" by the arc discharge. Dr. Brown cited instances when
extremely intense lightning channels appeared "black" to witnesses.
The phenomenon had also been photographed by professional
researchers. Each had erroneously assumed the effect to be a
bleaching action; one, which was both ocular and photochemical. No
one recognized the real significance of what had been recorded on
these photographic plates.
Only one researcher successfully glimpsed and accurately identified
the possible cause of these blackout effects.
George Piggot mentioned the mysterious "black band" which
appeared around his highly charged suspended metal marbles. Light
seemed to disappear into these zones. But it was Nikola Tesla,
whose forgotten and ignored testimony on the perceptual effects of
high voltage electrical systems took first place. Tesla produced
such intense electrical arcs that the same strange blackout effects
were repeatedly observed. In the case of
Tesla's famed Colorado Springs Experiments,
the blackout effect produced a lingering state, which Tesla
accurately described as a perceptual-spatial distortion.
Noted in his published diary, the results followed the intense
activity of his Magnifying Transformer. Visual distortions,
clarifications, black shadows, black streamers, black waves,
lingered for hours all around his plateau laboratory, whereby he
"These phenomena are so striking
that they cannot be satisfactorily explained by any plausible
hypothesis, and I am led to believe that possibly the strong
electrification of the air, which is often noted to an
extraordinary degree, may be more or less responsible for their
Dr. Brown suggested that space had been
warped to a degree where all the available light had been completely
refracted into the channel of distortion. No other force symmetry
could have effected this manifestation.
Furthermore, the blackout would produce
various effects in "successive stages". At weak levels, one could
maintain the blackout effect without noticing any effects on nearby
matter. There would be an intensity at which significant
"modifications" of matter would be noticed. These would include
internal material strains and spontaneous electrical discharges.
Provided the blackout effect was "slow enough", these material
modifications could tear matter apart in an explosion of electrical
With increasing arc intensities, a gradual series of space
distorting effects would be expected. Dematerializations would
follow light disappearances. Matter so significantly distorted,
would follow the ever-extinguishing light into the arc. This would
occur only if the discharge was "quick" enough to strain a given
volume of mass. The tools, which had disappeared, were too short for
such explosive displays to be observed.
Dr. Brown confirmed that the welding arc, used in the Naval welding
facility, had reached the theoretical intensity where nearby matter
was being drawn into the arc at a rapid enough speed to vanish. Mere
vaporization was a possible "escape route" for the materials, for
the steel tools. But the problem was compounded by the absence of
metal trace gases after the effect.
If metal tools were vaporized, one would
expect some trace of this in the site atmosphere after the event.
But there were no detectable vaporization products in the chamber
following the blackout. This inferred that, were the metals
vaporized, they had been rapidly drawn into the space warp. No
by-products. Complete dematerialization!
The films confirmed the suggestion. Materials enveloped in the
expanding blackness completely vanished. The mystifying
disappearance of the materials was thus, a space distortion effect.
Equations were summoned in proof of these speculations. The
vanishing of matter proceeded, from surfaces nearest the arc
directly through the masses to their outer peripheries. The blackout
proceeded as an enveloping wave; expanding to a limit, and then
retracting. After the blackout wave, materials were "erased" from
Summarizing his keynotes, Dr. Brown emphasized that the effect in
question was clearly an electrogravitic one; where sufficiently
intense electrical fields had inadvertently been focused to a
degree, which collapsed space into a thready distortion. Concluding
his talk, he added that his descriptions of electrogravitic
interactions were the only ones in existence, seeing that his
precious research in these avenues had been conducted amid a great
deal of academic doubt and derision.
He would not have been surprised if this small cluster of military
superiors and engineers rejected his approach to the problem. The
group was spellbound. Never had anyone presented such a complete
analysis of the phenomenon. The otherwise bizarre event found a most
satisfactory explanation. Imagine, they had the very fabric of space
in their grasp! What things could now be done?
Dr. Brown also predicted that spontaneous levitations and other
gravitational anomalies would follow the event. Gravitometers could
never accurately register the brevity of these impulses, being
interpreted as "anomalies" and instrumental "failures". Military use
of the effect would not hide itself from his own electrogravitic
detectors. These detection systems would necessarily be as highly
classified as the effect itself.
Little more than his description existed as bibliography. Questions
and conversation followed his formal presentation. Space warps
having the focus and intensity of the new Naval welding facility had
never been encountered by human agencies. Data of events taking
place within the arc channel simply did not exist. Unknowns filled
Where was the dissolved matter going? In
what form was it going?
The questions were endless. The
technological potentials, just as endless. One could not be sure
exactly what was occurring within the arc channel until closer
examinations were made possible. This was dangerous work. Once
matter entered into the warp, all discussion became theoretical.
The speed at which the blackout swept space and matter also
determined the completeness of its effect. The timing of its
manifestation was critical.
The "event" spread through space, a shockwave of deadly effect. Once
within the "event horizon" one would be removed from local space
How materials were being drawn into the arc channel was simply not
known. The arc seemed to be a thready channel, but whether or not
matter was reduced to a thready vapor while entering that channel
was also an unknown. What if matter was being wholly transferred
into another space? What space was it then? These considerations
brought science fiction dreams to mind. Could objects be teleported
by this means? Were there other worlds into which voyagers could go?
One thing was clear: dense matter from "local space" was being
"translated" to another space. Where "that space" was remained
There was danger in these experiments. Once initiated, the effect
could "grow" against all control factors. One simply did not know
what would happen when once the process was triggered.
Suppose the very act of
initiating the disturbance created space "drafts"?
How long before they would
Would they cease at all?
Would a space warp, once
started, ever stop drawing light and matter into its
ever-growing event horizon?
The frightening possibility that the
blackout wave could become haphazard or uncontrolled was a possible
threat. If the intensity of arc focus reached a critical unknown
"universal constant", a complete local space collapse into another
space could occur.
The space distortion "flashed" in its radiant and striated
blackness, the rays reaching out in all directions. Those who had
been in the control room were fortunate not to have been "drawn
away" in the event horizon. This early discussion was rich in terms
by which "black holes" are described. All agreed that careful
examinations of the effect would only be possible with a modified
welding system; one in which very precise adjustments of discharge
power could be arranged. Only then would researchers be able to
"grade" the effect, watching for the successive phases of phenomena
manifesting near the explosive arc.
After he had concluded his presentation, the verbal display of
congratulations was overwhelming. The shy and reserved man remained
silently smiling amid the applause. But something troubled him about
these proceedings. Even as he made his delivery, a strange heart-tug
would not permit him to disclose the other and more deeply
mysterious aspects of the spacewarp blackout phenomenon.
He refused to discuss all the features
of the spacewarp because of its possible use in weaponry. It was
obvious that "they" were not intrigued with the phenomenon from its
more spiritual viewpoint. This phenomenon represented something of
far greater importance than even he was able to perceive.
Without such knowledge, without such
wisdom, the technological application of this technology would
become the terrible weaponry of future wars.
True to form, military discussion continued into the night. The
scientific applications of this effect would be endless. This new
technology would improve their methods of warfare. Devastating. Such
a device could eradicate every material in a specific circumference
with no evidence that anything was once in existence! Better than an
atomic bomb! They brimmed from ear to ear at the prospect.
This accidental observation could be the
"new power" which the world was awaiting.
Numerous phases of the effect could be used for various functions in
warfare. Derivatives of the effect could be selected and deployed.
By the time the night was over, whiskey and cigar smoke having
thoroughly saturated the room, several schemes were proposed. First,
it was determined that an experiment be conducted with the
"blackout" effect. An attempt to "cloak" a selected region of ground
space would be their first goal.
Once this experiment had proven its usefulness, then other selected
portions of the space distorting effect would be used. More dramatic
and complete destructions could therefore be deployed with each
successive research success. Wonderful destructions. This first
phase could not be designated by any explicit terminology. The
"blackout effect" was itself a priority. The working title of this
first project would necessarily be an elusive one. The removal of
light being their goal, an oppositional term, one describing vivid
color, would be used.
The now infamous "Project
Rainbow" (commonly known as
the Philadelphia Experiment), was initiated.
The obvious preeminence of Dr. Brown's work on electrogravitic
effects, together with his working knowledge of "space warps" made
him the most reasonable advisor in the NRL's newly proposed "Project
Rainbow". This period of Dr. Brown's biography remains shrouded in
silence. By this time he had achieved the rank of Lieutenant
Commander. His presence during the early phases of the now infamous
experiment have been confirmed. Thereafter, he seemingly vanished
from the team. Why this occurred had everything to do with the
nature of the man himself.
Brown was willing to speed the war effort, saving lives and bringing
a swift conclusion to all the horrible suffering. After carefully
considering all the experimental evidence, it was agreed that a
sustained "black out", capable of suffusing a region of ground,
could be achieved. But others would have to design the main parts of
His mind firmly against the deployment
of spacewarp technology as weapons, Dr. Brown would only provide the
initial components for a cloaking device. Already his heart and mind
were striving with him to depart from the work.
Something in the official treatment of
his analysis troubled him deeply.
What were they really after?
Or were they really only
interested, as he was, in the wonder of an invisibility
A new facility was established toward
these ends. The weld site apparatus was modified for experimental
research now. Heavy-duty switches, arc-discharge chambers, and
precise control components were developed.
By carefully monitoring the arc discharges, with precise attention
on intensity and discharge "speed", the effect could theoretically
be safely maintained. But capacitor fired arcs proved to be unstable
and intermittent in operation. Therefore, judging from the thesis,
which Dr. Brown proposed, special generators would be needed to
sustain the effects at highly controllable levels. The continuous
generation of the warp was now sought.
A rotating high voltage machine could be mechanically governed, its
momentum regulating the necessary high voltage for sustained periods
of time. It was also recognized that, since a unidirectional
electrical impulse produced the warp, then a reversed impulse could
disrupt the warp. The suppression of any possible "runaway"
reactions could be immediately switched and reversed on this
principle. So, with these safety factors at their disposal, the
research team strove into the unknown.
The pressure to achieve the goals of this project were unbearable.
More important were the rapid calculations and visionary
penetrations with which Dr. Brown viewed the true purpose of the
How far would the military go
with this new power, which they were about to unleash?
On whom would these most
dreadful forces be unleashed?
Had he played his part as a
puppet in a much larger theater where only the malevolent
Suddenly he knew what they were going to
do with the technology, and where the final outcome would lead. This
Project, this Rainbow quest was not going to end with mere
"protective" technology. The very term now came through to his
conscience like a mocking lie. He knew what the next phase of
research would demand. He could not give it. He would not
participate. It would have to stop here and now.
In his tortured thoughts he saw the empty cities, emptied in a black
flash. He saw the twisted, distorted faces when torment was
summoned; the black flash slowly pulling them apart. He heard the
cries, the screams of innocents enveloped in the black and not
appearing once the inky blackness passed. He could not easily
withdraw from the experiments now, though moral obligation impelled
Any such declarations would be declared
acts of cowardice, or even of treason. He was an officer with
officer's duties and oaths to uphold. The war was on, and he was
helping his own nation develop a power more loathsome and morally
abhorrent than the atomic bomb itself. He had to leave now or
forever live with his conscience. What was he to do? What we know of
Dr. Brown's "official" disposition after this time period was that
he was in a state of "complete nervous collapse". The extremity of
his condition forced him out of the research project.
His position in the Project now
permanently "retired", his classification level "demoted", Dr. brown
returned home to rest and wait out the time. There are those who
accept the story of his "complete nervous collapse" without
There are those who speculate on the
true nature of his withdrawal.
Had he sacrificed his own rank
and prestige in order to block progress on a most horrid
application of his technology?
Was his "condition" the only
logical recourse left to him in order to be prematurely
Had he obtained his purpose in
His own integrity and moral fiber were intact, an admirable reward
for so dubious a military venture. The decision made, his future
would not be an easy one. It would be almost impossible to obtain
work as a Naval consultant ever again. Credibility not harmed, he
would have a difficult time with the outside engineering community
if it was learned that he "failed under pressure".
Furthermore, if the NRL wished to
"pursue" him as they had done in the past with their other
"defectors", he would stand no chance at all. Would they reach
around him with a "ring of power", making him invisible?
Loved, respected, and highly appraised by all of his superiors and
associates, the outcome was not nearly as bad as he feared it would
be. He was treated with genuine kindness and respect. By now he was
thinking about the NRL and what they were about to do. His departure
did not stop the Project. They continued without him. New experts
were brought in. Technicians and designers acquired the various
Project tasks assigned them. Lacking the intuitive insight, which
comes with inspiration, their assessments did not match those of Dr.
In this technology, the smallest error of judgment in theoretics,
design, or operation could become a dangerous and lethal situation.
A newly designed dynamo provided the initiating energy. This
rotating machine generated a very high voltage field. Remember, Dr.
Brown had discovered that the spacewarp required only an intensely
Current was not the required feature in
the process. Also, the employment of suitable high dielectric
strength capacitors, better than vacuum, would allow the emergence
of blackout effects at much lower voltages. In addition, it was
imperative that the blackout effect, which was a dangerous spacewarp,
be "shaped" to specified geometries. One did not wish to be
enveloped in that blackness.
Some stated that the optical blackout was not a desirable state in
which to cloak any tactically vital object. Any enemy could see a
blackout". Enemies could simply fire shells into the heart of a
blackout to reach their mark. What was desired was a more subtle
application of the spacewarp effect; something far more refined and
controlled. It was then hypothetically proposed that complete
blackness might not be the first optical distortion effect in the
"sequence of effects" which Dr. Brown had described in his report.
Perhaps it might be possible to so "tune" the effect that, prior to
"black optical states", a condition of transparency or invisibility
might actually be achieved. The idea was to attempt bringing the
space warp to an intensity in which any material objects surrounded
by "the effect" would vanish. Vanish "from sight", but not from
local space. Some superiors stated that they would be happy even if
the spacewarp achieved "radar invisibility" for sustained intervals.
Optical invisibility would then be an "extra treat".
With this proposal, Project Rainbow
found its true inspiration.
Years earlier in Hungary (1936), Stephen Pribil demonstrated
an "invisibility system". His system utilized special heterodyned
light beams to render objects transparent and even invisible. Under
the beams produced by his special lamps, opaque objects gradually
became transparent. The effect could be controlled, optical
transparencies sustained at specific "intensities". Radio cabinets,
exposed to his lamps, faded from view. Astounded witnesses saw
through the cabinets, while the interiors stood out with amazing
clarity. Metal parts, tubes, and chassis could be seen darkly
shining through the wooden enclosures.
Allowed to thoroughly handle each part of his apparatus as well as
the objects made transparent, it was also obvious that the system
actually worked. He rendered transparent any object they wished by
his extraordinary method. What became of Mr. Pribil, his device, and
his theories remains a mystery. In what manner spaces are distorted
by very ordinary energies remains part of the scientific record.
Numerous instances in which these
strange phenomena make themselves apparent have been noted. The
sharp black edges which surround grounded iron materials and
evergreen trees seem to be related to the more extreme
electrogravitic phenomena in outward appearance at the very least.
The first series of Project Rainbow experiments was first
performed with the aim of "cloaking" tanks and heavy gun
installations, that phase of the experiment, which principally had
stimulated the participation of Dr. Brown. The high voltage impulses
would necessarily be applied to a ring of capacitors, which
surrounded the object. It was critical that these capacitors be
oriented in such a manner that the spacewarp would not engulf anyone
within its perimeter.
In the first accidental observations, the arc discharge engulfed all
surrounding space. With its singular axis and vertical disposition,
the warp radiated from arc to periphery. The designers needed to
find a way for the radiant warp to move in a confined zone. Any such
system in which personnel were involved would necessarily contain a
"safety zone". In this safety zone, one could observe and yet remain
unaffected by the warp. Could an array of extremely high voltage
capacitance actually bend space around a fixed perimeter?
Safety from the warp was the item of
Was there no shield from this
potentially deadly effect?
Were there no materials or field
configurations, which could shape and "guide" the spacewarp
away from human participants and, eventually, crewmembers?
Could the effect be beamed to a
How far could such a "beam" be
Already the deliberated weapons research
phase was meshing with the Project. Technicians attempted
redesigning the symmetry in which the warp, the "black flash", would
expand into its surrounding space. The capacitor axes acted as the
radiant points for the expanding warp.
The system was remarkably and ruggedly simple. It is unknown what
impulse durations and repetition rates were actually employed when
applying the high voltage to the capacitor ring, but their
repetitive frequency most certainly were very low. As Dr. Brown had
empirically discovered with his gravitators years before, large
capacitor values required longer warp "saturation" times.
The capacitor "axes" were radially disposed at a great distance from
a central point. From above the installation, the power cables
formed radial lines out to the periphery of a circle. Each radial
cable was connected to a terminal of a capacitor. There were many of
these. The capacitor axes pointed "in line" with the radial cables.
Their precise alignment was absolutely critical, since any deviation
from this radial symmetry would bring disaster.
The outer terminals of all the
capacitors were joined by a single circular loop. Voltage was thus
applied from center to periphery. These capacitors, electrified by
the high voltage dynamo and its ancillary impulsing components, were
collectively a very large capacitance.
With the capacitors themselves at that circumference, the spacewarp
would expand as a sheath of specific "thickness". The thickness
depended entirely on the capacitor thickness. Their dielectric
material was a special composite, probably of barium titanate
powders. This dielectric permitted the concentration of very high
voltage electrical fields without leakage and subsequent field loss.
This material also permitted the use of significantly diminished
voltages and impulse rates. Each capacitor projected a warp. Warps
meshed between capacitors. The cloaking effect would be induced as a
"ring like wall" surrounding an interior space, a safety zone. Or so
In this manner, any object placed in the center of the "cloaking
ring" would be surrounded by an optically indistinct zone. According
to the analysis, which technicians now provided, no blacking effect
would be experienced within the ring, the warp being confined to a
specified outer periphery. The system would provide a convenient
wall, shrouding one's presence from any enemy's gaze. Questions now
were directed toward the perceptual distortions, which the crew
might experience. How one perceived the world "beyond the ring"
would require another series of experiments.
The voltage output of newly designed dynamos was extreme. In fact,
they operated more like electrostatic generators than current
generators. Ratings of several million volts would not be a
conservative estimate. The initial experiments apparently succeeded,
the Project moving into its progressive developmental stages.
Problems of communication through the warp cloak was going to be a
problem. How would the crew remain in touch with superiors? In
wartime, communications would be the necessary and critical item of
Could one use ordinary radio waves across the threshold of a
Optical blackout would block all
communications on both sides of the cloak wall. But transparency
might allow specific radio frequencies through the wall. At
sufficiently high radio frequencies and power levels, there would be
no problems in this application of the warp. Special UHF antennas
appeared throughout these experiments, reported as "Christmas
The Naval Research Laboratories now undertook the first deployment
of the system for use on a much grander scale: to "cloak" and render
a ship invisible. The chosen ship, USS Eldridge (DE 173), was now
outfitted with the experimental system in two sections. The first
was loaded on board. This included the dynamos and a modified
capacitor ring assembly. The second section, presumably controlling
devices and data readout systems, was located off shore. The moored
ship was connected from ship to shore by a great system of very
thick black cables.
The capacitor ring surrounded the ship's hull in the same symmetry
as was used to surround grounded objects. Several pairs of wire
loops were placed completely around the ship's hull. Between these
loops, a great number of the specialized capacitors were placed in
radial orientations. Since the capacitor "ring" assembly saturated
the warp for such a long time, it would be possible to again lower
the impulse rate. Continuous transparency could be arranged by
employing a cadenced series of such assemblies.
It was vital that the electrical axes be absolutely radial with
respect to the ship's deck, and that no unexpected diffraction
effects be encountered by the expanding warp. Such diffractions
would destroy the warp profile, bringing its deadly effects into the
safety zone. Crewmembers would have to stay deep in the safety zone
interior or risk being destroyed by the expanding warp.
The assembly produced an intense space distortion, which surrounded
the ship. In unmanned tests, the effects appeared benign,
invisibility actually having been achieved. It has been rumored that
the aged Tesla was called from his secure Manhattan retreat to act
as consultant to this project. The father of electrical impulse
science and inventor of electrostatic impulse generators and
transformers, his expertise added certain finishing touches to the
massive equipment. In addition, his own experience with the blackout
phenomenon added special credence to the project. No doubt, he
himself was enthralled at the discovery and its amazing properties.
The development and proposal to deploy the system by the military
did not rest well with Tesla however, his sharpened intuition
recognizing their ultimate goals. It had been reported that Tesla
left the Project abruptly after recognizing the potentially harmful
effects on crewmembers and the natural environment. The safety of
crewmembers or other military personnel who would be exposed to such
an energetic effect would indeed be the critical factor.
Could human beings operate near such a powerful warp and remain
The early exposures of control room
personnel produced mild and temporary cessation of conscious
process. Physiologically, no reports of after-effects were ever
mentioned in connection with the blackout. It was critical that the
effect be closely monitored and isolated. When deployed on a
battleship or aircraft carrier, the capacitor rings would produce an
enormous warp volume. Required to bend space around the ship, the
system would be taxed to its design limits. Until standardized, the
system itself would continue to remain "in the design stage".
The "black out" state would not be engaged, it previously being
determined to achieve a mild state of transparency. This cloaking
system would provide a camouflage resembling a "blurry sea horizon".
After tests with laboratory animals proved safe, a crew was
selected. Once aboard the ship, crewmembers were asked to simply "go
about their business as usual".
Warned to stay well within the interior
of the safety zone, it was stressed that they treat the hull as they
would a deadly electrified fence. The crew was told that there might
be possible "strange optical effects" when looking outside, but that
this was part of the experiment. If they were successful, they would
be "war heroes". The Navy would have obtained a new weapon for the
war and they would be first to try it.
The systems were initiated. Power was applied. The ship acquired a
"swimmy" appearance against the blue sky. Increased power brought
the effect toward the theoretical mark. The ship becoming more
blurry. Power to the system was raised a few more degrees, and to
the amazement of all who watched, the blur became a foggy
transparency. The ship could not distinctly be seen at all! The
effect was sustained for a few minutes, and then removed gradually.
All seemed well.
What the NRL did not know was what had happened in those few
minutes. It was impossible for them to receive any distress calls,
the entire crew having been incapacitated. There must have been a
leakage effect somewhere in the hull, the "ill-formed" spacewarp
moving into the safety zone. It has been thought that the excessive
steel of the ship itself acted in some strange uncalculated manner
to draw the warp effect into the ship. Furthermore, in the few
seconds after the power was applied, many of the crewmembers
attempted diving off the ship. They never made it to the warp edge,
being saturated in the radiant warp field.
The experiment had horrible side effects. Each exposed crewmember
was neurologically damaged beyond all hope of healing. Having become
known as the "Philadelphia" experiment, it remains but one highly
classified chapter in military science. What we know of this event
has come through significant and credible sources. The disastrous
results of this experiment were not easily forgotten. It has been
"presumed" that the NRL relinquished these developments.
Others offer more striking evidence that
none of these systems have escaped continual examination.
Having subsequently lost his security clearance, and being retired
from active service on a small pension had its advantages. By 1944,
those who sought him found him working as a consultant on radar
systems for Lockheed.
Radar, the leading conventional postwar
science responsible for saving lives and virtually winning the war,
was a safe and moral place to land. Playing it "conventional" after
the war meant earning a steady income. Nevertheless, but his dream
of spaceflight continued weaving its lovely and intricate patterns
through his mind. Dr. Brown was well aware of the horrid outcomes
obtained in Project Rainbow.
Though his moral obligations were
fulfilled in these regards, he could not recall the Project without
the deepest sadness. The designers were simply not equipped to
properly engage the power and fabric of space in such a cavalier
manner. His examination of their proposals revealed the numerous
flaws in their configuration. It was amazing to him that no one had
even considered the diffractive effect of the hulls when raising the
Yet, had he been actively involved in
the Project, his superiors would have demanded complete cooperation
in deploying the weapons aspect of the warp phenomenon.
There had been ramifications of the NRL (Naval Research
Laboratory )experimental nightmare, which disturbed his own
plans for the future. For a time he very well imagined that
spacewarp drive was deadly. If used in the intensities demanded by
his own calculations, the unshielded effects would do to a flight
crew exactly what it did to the men of the USS Eldridge. For a time
it seemed that spacewarp would kill voyagers if employed in aviation
or space travel.
Patient study and intuitive vision finally brought forth a solution
to the deadly problem. The answer was contained in considering the
nature of dielectrics. Dielectrics of proper composition could guide
the mobile spacewarp in a smooth and confined flow. Unlike the NRL,
tests on these notions would require sufficient investigations prior
to deployment. His crushing suspended thoughts on the wonderful
vision of his childhood finally returned with renewed strength.
Never would he reveal it to those in the NRL. He knew how to shape
and isolate the warp with absolute safety.
The War was over. And his own war was over. Once again, the dream
sea began surging in human minds. The skies deepened and people
began seeing things, new things, in the deep blue outer reaches. A
sudden wave of reports flooded the media with observations of
"flying discs". Saucers. The vague and elusive forms traveled at
speeds, which rivaled every known military aircraft. As with the
mystery aeroships and ghost-rockets, these aerial sightings remained
true to the archetypal pattern of manifestations. Their first
appearances were vague and dreamy, cloudy and indistinct. With time,
their forms seemed to solidify and acquire sharply detailed surface
Each dream manifestation in the historical series brought totally
new behaviors to human attention. Saucers were no different. By
their very shape and activity they comprised an utterly exotic and
unexpected event. Lights, search beacons, colors, flashings, color
changes, aerial caprices, right-angle turns, sudden disappearances,
simultaneous radar visibility and visual invisibility ... the flying
saucers exhibited their new behaviors as each previous aerial dream
display had done.
Their appearance came on the tail of the war in Europe, pilots
reporting strange "foo fighters" and mysterious "fireballs". While
some investigators cited the development of special electrically
activated robot aircraft in Nazi Germany, most could not explain the
incredible variety of flying saucer sightings in every other part of
Having ability to out-maneuver the best Allied bombers, these
strangely animated objects were more than a public curiosity by this
point in time. World national security being the principle theme of
every government, flying saucers were military "objectives".
Every aspect of these flying craft was
Who were they?
Were they a private group of
highly advanced engineers?
A maverick or rogue community of
technologists at war with the world of nations?
Were they aliens?
If aliens, then which planet?
What were their motives?
Why were they playing with
military facilities in such a nonchalant and arrogant
Memos, reports, flaps, and aerial
skirmishes. News releases, press releases, cover stories, cover-ups.
Diversions, debunkers. Files exist, files do not exist. Crafts
retrieved, crafts shot down, crafts do not exist, bodies retrieved.
Hangars, weather balloons, radar balloons ... the amusing charades
yet continue. While flying saucers behaved in comic fashion, the Air
Force was burning the sky down. Helpless. Powerless. While
attempting to unravel the puzzle and appear in total control, the
simultaneous juggling act of desperate data acquisition, cover-ups,
and denials proved to be a far more entertaining theater than the
The ridiculous spectacle of earthly power and dominion in the act of
square dancing at high speed was a rich amusement of derision. The
intended effect. The dramatic and focused concern of military
agencies for these flying saucers betrayed a singular impotence. A
demand for control. Power, the deception of control and dominations,
was being mocked by a playful energy, which analysts yet do not
Nevertheless, the obvious superiority of flying saucer crafts, if
they were indeed crafts, left military superiors at a total loss.
How did they fly?
How were they able to execute
inertia-defying maneuvers without shearing to pieces?
How were they able to accelerate
complete out of visual contact in a millisecond without
What was their mode of
What was their metallurgy?
Every vaguely related terrestrial saucer
technology was probed. Piecing through the Patent Registry, the
military people were directed by experts to examine those propulsion
devices, which, though deigned "impossible" by major aircraft
corporations, nevertheless actually worked.
Neither the Air Force, however, nor the NRL communicated in a
mutually cooperative manner. The "tradition" among military groups
forbad this. Now, especially after the war, these "traditions" were
strengthened beyond measure; seeing that each group was in
possession of new and potentially domineering technologies gleaned
from the war years.
Suddenly, the NRL was "interested" in Dr. Brown again!
against all principles of normal military security, Dr. Brown was
brought into the NRL again. Living in Hawaii, his relaxed manner was
noted; a defined and dramatic change from the days during the
now-infamous Rainbow Project. Highly cloistered military engaged the
dialogue. "Brown" was the closest they would ever get to solving a
particular "problem" which they had.
Dr. Brown decided that a formal proposal be made for research
funding in 1952. After several months of research, a small NRL group
was convened. Dr. Brown spoke once more to NRL examiners. He
imagined at first that their "problem" had something to do with the
recent sightings of UFO phenomena. He mentioned that he could
surprise them in these regards if they were patient enough.
He began his talk by attempting to prove that aerial flight with
gravitator engines was the new high frontier. He named his
experimental foray "Project Winterhaven".
Hoping to lead the military gaze toward
true space travel itself, he made his appeal to the NRL. Now done
with the last war, he encouraged them to seek out some new
technological venture. They smiled and listened on. The time was
indeed ripe. The race for new spaceward investigations had captured
every mind. The dream sea surging. Space flight was the obvious new
challenge. Dr. Brown reminded and warned his colleagues of their
former "negligence" with pre-war technology.
The Air Force was painfully aware of their ignorance concerning
rocketry, until both V-I and V-2 packages began raining death and
ruin upon England. Here again was their time, ripe for new
technology, ripe for the experimental implementation of his
astounding discoveries. Most of the NRL examiners agreed, almost
laughing among themselves at an obvious "inside joke".
Now was the time. Now. Everything was moving spaceward now. Now was
the time when space travel could really come to pass. He then
mentioned his careful study of early European Rocket Club
periodicals, which revealed forgotten fancies in both space travel
and space engineering. Some designs and hypothetical plans were
bizarre fantasies in mathematical form, but they had practical
Taking their lead from Robert Goddard, the Europeans
developed elaborate and elegant solutions to the real problems of
rocket-driven space flight. As with so many wonderful scientific
developments, the mathematical work on various aspects of space
flight had all been published and forgotten during the War. He
elucidated on these, highlighting the fact that while some were
fanciful, most were inspirational, visionary, and instructive.
Russian engineers designed a ground-boarded space cable car system.
Some imagined "space carrousels" which could extend capture cables
earthward, towing groundlings skyward. It was the mathematical
precision, which most thoroughly engaged professional readers and
students of these journals.
Certain of the more serious schemes, proposed independently by both
Willy Ley and Arthur C. Clarke, considered the
stepwise approach of moon landings and moon colonization. These
topics provoked great interest and the writing of numerous
notations. The methodic deployment of "clock orbit" stations would
certainly establish the practical means for landing on the moon.
Space islands, permitting short trips with long rest intervals,
would be positioned at critical "L points". In such points the
stations would be space stable. Fuel, rest, food, supplies. All of
these requirements could be shuttled between successive L stations
before embarking toward the lunar surface.
Such a system of "space stepping stones" would not necessitate the
titanic and impractical rocket needed for a straight earth-to-moon
voyage. They shifted as he went on, seemingly uninterested. When
once the L stations were in their sequenced positions, only small
escape velocity shuttles would be required for the lunar journey.
When he mentioned his plan for a "sortie vehicle", one which could
launch a spacecraft from ground to L station number one, he suddenly
acquired their interest. He described his new engines. They listened
intently to everything he said now.
The electro-impulsed gravity engines would operate in space at peak
efficiency. Utilizing electrical power alone, the spacecraft designs
required no liquid fuel. The gravitators needed an initial lift
before achieving true free flight. Dr. Brown reported his
development and successful testing of small ion thrust jets, the
electric arc rockets that he designed in his youth. These would
provide the necessary takeoff momentum. Coupled together, the system
would gracefully propel a disc-shaped vehicle out to space.
Implementation of his ion thrusters alone would revolutionize the
art of flying, ultimately permitting rapid deployment of small
interplanetary crafts. He patented several of these ionic thrust
3.187.206) throughout the 1950's and
early 1960's. These devices produced both thrust and electrical
voltages of unheard strengths. They were early examples of MHD
generators. Magneto-hydrodynamic generators produce remarkable
volumes of electrical power directly from flame.
Photographs, which he presented to the group, looked less like his
early "Flash Gordon" rocket forms, and more like the flying saucers,
which had been recently reported on the worldwide scene. NRL
examiners remained completely silent, while writing what they saw.
There were those who came to inspect his
experimental facility. His designs had taken on a distinctly
otherworldly appearance; being large area, beautifully smooth
surfaced "discoids". Convex metallic forms. Flying saucers, which
actually flew. Their obvious link to the UFO rage of the early I
950's was a compelling aspect which attracted many curious academes
and Air Force military advisors later.
He had designed an overall shape, which
combined all the features required for a "flying wing". The forward
craft section was charged electropositive, tension being established
with section aft, charged electronegative. The Brown warp thrust
effect would move the entire craft forward when sufficient
electrical impulses were delivered to the aerofoil.
These saucer shaped designs were
tethered to a central support rod, having perpendicular extensions
of ten feet. On these were fixed two "discoid aerofoils", each some
two feet in diameter.
Supplied with long electrical impulses of 50 Kilovolts electrostatic
potential, the discs raced around the sixty-foot circumference,
achieving an angular velocity of nearly twenty feet per second!
These discs operated on pure spacewarp power. They were dragged
along with the distorted space, which they electrically projected.
In quick steps, he had increased both the size and speed of these
tethered discoid capacitors. The discs were now three feet in
diameter, running around a fifty-foot course at higher speeds. Their
movement was swift and silent, a military dream. These experiments
had been classified by NRL examiners who had previously come to
observe his progress. Classified, but not accepted ... a strange
The NRL was interested, but something in their manner alerted Dr.
Brown to some deeper motive.
He nevertheless continued the dialogue.
The discoidal aerofoil was to be equipped with several propulsion
systems. Each would be engaged with each stage of the aerial ascent.
Dr. Brown's ion rockets were designed to provide initial lift for
his crafts, while generating enough electrical field strength to
power the gravitator cluster.
At orbital heights, the entire craft would achieve stable gravitator
function, ion engines being disengaged. The ion rocket could be used
for controlled re-entry after a space flight reached home. This plan
not only sounded professionally impressive, its demonstration was
impressive. Dr. Brown had succeeded in achieving the self-sustained
flight of his aerofoil models without much NRL assistance.
His frugal use of their recent funding
was not wasted. They asked how he proposed to shield the crew from
the possibly deadly aspects of the warp drive. And this is when he
stopped sharing. For now he recognized their true motive for both
reinstating his security clearance, funding his research, and for
now being in his facility.
In his private researches, Dr. Brown discovered that dielectric
material could be molded to any specification. Any geometry could be
accommodated. In these secrets, he had encrypted his elegant
solution to the problem of isolating space warps from crewmembers.
The NRL experts desired this information. This is why they were
He attempted to engage and elude them now, to obtain his own
information. The behavioral patterns and actions of one's opponents
betray their intentions, acquisitions, and fund of knowledge. Dr.
Brown watched them closer now. He demonstrated his devices
repeatedly for them. Now, the NRL was drawing their examination to a
close. Suddenly, after all they had heard and seen, none agreed that
the effect was "truly electrogravitic" in nature. This was designed
to "throw him off' the trail which he was pursuing.
Typically, NRL examiners accused Dr. Brown of "poor science",
stating that his effect was produced by "nothing more" than a high
voltage ionic wind emitted from the gravitator poles. The
gravitators would therefore be useless in space environments. This
decoy, this derision, was the commonly employed tactic of those who
wish to conceal. In this case, the NRL wished to conceal the fact
that they had already perfected the warp drive engines. Dr. Brown
knew exactly what they were doing in his laboratory now. They were
desperate. They needed a piece of information, which he alone had.
What was it though?
The frail hearted would have been dejected, their morale destroyed.
Believing the "rumor" of their own failure, in the mouth of military
"experts", such individuals had been known to drop their work
completely. The mind game. Nations turn in upon the wellsprings of
their own creativity, secluding discovery to a cloistered elite. The
power game. On behalf of whom? The old money. Who are they? The old
families remain anonymous. The nouveau riche are pushed to the
The actions and behavior of the NRL told him everything he needed to
know. One or two more surprises would give him a piece of
information, which he now desired. He provoked them with an
impromptu demonstration. It was a wonderful, but old experiment. He
had performed this test the very day after he discovered the
thrusting effect in his Zanesville garage as a child. In true
scientific bravado, Dr. Brown completely submerged his gravitators
The oil-submerged devices again
outperformed their own atmospheric tests! He was enthralled at this
last face-to-face "victory". This meant that, with increasing
altitude, the gravitators would take an increasing role in overall
thrust! He thanked them for their "original" objections.
For the meanwhile, his critics were silenced ... but not thrilled at
the findings. This response was shockingly conspicuous. They had
already seen such demonstrations elsewhere, had they? But, by whom?
And when? It was clear that they had already reached this
technological plateau. Quite obviously, these examiners were not
"now" interested in his system, because they were never really
interested in his system from the start. They had already taken the
original project beyond the bounds which he was displaying for them,
having developed superior thrusters of their own.
The examiners were there specifically to discover whether or not his
system incorporated a "warp shield". It was simple. They knew that
his knowledge of the Rainbow experiment was the leading theme. They
knew his awareness of their failure. He knew the dangers of the
warp. He knew their failure to shield from its deadly effect. Yet,
here he was developing a spacewarp drive. No one with his expertise
would undertake such an experiment. There would be no future in it
at a certain point in the developmental stage. Hence, himself quite
aware of the potential dangers of deploying a large-scale warp
drive, he had to have solved the "shielding problem".
This was the very problem, which their "experts" had originally, and
disastrously failed to produce in Philadelphia. Therefore, they had
approached and "caressed" him for favors. Technological answers to a
new project, one in which he would never playa part. It was also
obvious that the internal functions of the NRL had become the
property of post-war trusts.
The chronological facts and behavior of
NRL examiners yet remain part of the historical record.
The "successful" results of his NRL encounter further encouraged him
to reach his originally envisioned goal of space flight. But he
would do so on a non-military level. Numerous military personnel
were now commandeering aircraft industries. Such individuals would
be useless to him if co-opted by establishment concerns. In that
case, their every endeavor would be marred and marked by a simple
concern to resist new technology for the protection of investments.
He would take his system to privateers. Commercialization of
spacecrafts would revolutionize the very manner in which citizens
envisioned themselves. The gravitators would indeed work in space
with far greater efficiency than they did in his earthbound lab
experiments. The engines did not require the military excess common
with ordinary rocketry.
It was so strikingly clear that Dr. Brown was not concerned at all
with the rejections of NRL or military developers. Their own stealth
had betrayed them. He knew there were crafts already being deployed
in test facilities. He knew that the future of his technology had a
future. The manner in which the NRL had first approached, inquired,
acquired, and then rejected his work told all.
The commercialization of spacewarp systems was predicated on the
practical simplicity and relative inexpensive of their development
and industrial deployment. Dr. Brown was not going to be stopped
this time in achieving his spaceward dream. It was not money he
needed. His was the mind on which they had built. He had the dream
and the knowledge. No one funded his work henceforth. The NRL
(Naval Research Laboratory) maintained their cautious and
cloistered distance. It was his own fortune, which was consumed in
perfecting these experiments and making scientific history. But
costly equipment and gigantic facilities were not the necessary
resource. The dream was the only necessary resource.
When American investors failed to join his project, he answered
queries made by foreign companies. Traveling abroad to Europe in
1955, where he believed more willing hearts and competitive minds
were listening to new ideas, he began his presentations. He first
demonstrated his system in England, but received no commitment of
funding. Investors there were thoroughly embroiled in duties of the
empire, unable to disentangle themselves from their first loyalties.
But, the National Aeronautic Society in France greatly desired to
examine these designs for testing and development. His
demonstrations captured them completely. Enthralled with the
potential access to space flight, their enthusiastic plans for his
technology took off at once. Calculated proposals indicated that
larger disc aerofoils would become increasingly more efficient than
the models. Up-scaling the voltage supply required a new type of
engine. While French engineers were temporarily obstructed by this
impasse, he reintroduced his ideas about ion rockets.
He developed his most famous and
powerful MHD jet engine in France. The lightweight MHD power
pack could be supported by the craft itself, removing the noisome
connection to ground. In addition to his oil tank demonstrations, he
successfully performed the gravitator experiments in Paris at the
highest obtainable vacuum. These tests, made in 1955, proved
conclusively that "ionic wind" activities were not the cause of
thrust. In fact, not only was it impossible to detect any sort of
ionic winds, but it was found that the gravitator became ever more
powerful with increased vacuum.
The only liquid fuel would be the ionic "seed" materials with which
to provide charge. Inert liquid gases, seeded with salts would
provide the powerful fuel for his electric arc jet. In addition,
permanent magnets would split the ionic jet into electropositive and
electronegative charges of stupendous potential. This lightweight
system would produce over three million volts, simultaneously
supplying both initial thrust and gravitator action potential. Now
the systems carried their own power supplies and could support
A quick merger between rival factions of the National Aeronautic
Society brought Brown's dreams down. Thoroughly disappointed and out
of funds, Brown returned to the States in 1956. Nevertheless, he had
reached toward his dreams with success. He had the system and the
patents to prove it. In 1957, he was invited to work on antigravity
designs with Agnew Bahnson, a wealthy businessman. Brown
traveled to North Carolina to establish a privately funded
antigravity research laboratory.
While Bahnson and King were intent on developing and patenting
designs of their own, Brown was simply becoming a consultant. This
disappointing poise caused him to refrain from sharing much of his
technology with them. Nevertheless, he did attempt to urge them into
considering his discoveries, and the superiority of his patents.
There are films of some of the experiments in which an older Dr.
Brown may be seen standing alongside Mr. Bahnson and
Frank King. Smiling, warm, and friendly, he is seen
demonstrating the Brown Effect on a small (but weighty) metal disc.
A momentary impulse appears, and the disc noticeably rocks to and
fro. It does not seem that they were at all intrigued with this
In a freak accident of the strangest kind, Bahnson was killed. His
private plane ran directly into a high-tension line. The research
lab continued for a time with Bahnson's associates, who patented
several inefficient electric wind-lifted devices. During this latter
period, Dr. Brown spoke with Frank King of certain theories, which
he had apparently kept to himself for years. His experimental
research had convinced him that inertial mass differed from
gravitational mass. He taught that these differences could be
elicited only when mass was electrified.
Positive charging at high potentials would increase inertial mass
while decreasing gravitational mass. Negative charging at high
potential would increase gravitational mass while decreasing
inertial mass. Dr. Brown had proven this in a great number of
strictly controlled demonstrations. The development of rocket planes
emerged from the commercial drawing boards as the "best means" for
The corporate venture, co-opted by both
established money and military entanglements, was destined for
disappointment. In the typical "nationalization" policy, and on the
very eve of its success, the X-IS venture was twisted out of
designers' hands and placed entirely in military control. The
obvious reasons for a military "first" assault on space need no
further discussions. No commercial space ventures would be
The remarkably effective super-guns of Dr. Gerald Bull were already
proving that an inexpensive means for launching unmanned commercial
payloads, satellites and scientific instruments, was available and
ready to meet customer demands. How they pursued Dr. Bull, provoking
him to seek investors elsewhere, is another matter of the historical
Each of these dreams was methodically
eradicated, not because they were "ineffectual", but because other
powers and dominions demanded total control of space. It is amusing,
and pathetic to recognize how ignorance best blinds those who
promote it. The industrial-military complex now considers themselves
in possession of the "only means for achieving space".
Remember, however, Dr. Brown did not
design an expensive and inaccessible system.
Since that time, others received viable
patents for devices, which demonstrate modifications of gravitation
Between the years 1958 and 1962, Brown acted as consultant in a
number of corporate ventures. Years after being declined by the NRL,
Tom Brown was yet considered "too knowledgeable to be left alone".
Government investigators continually infiltrated his demonstrations
and meetings with deliberate intent. The infiltrators each observed
his experimental work, accurately reporting what they saw to their
He continually claimed that his electrogravitic drive system would
power ships to the stars, representing his system to potential
buyers and developers. It seemed that all had fallen victim to some
mass lethargy with the exception of himself and a few other
inventors. Investors, on the other hand, were simply incapable of
entering sound business ventures any longer.
They had not the zeal and adventure of
their forefathers who made their financial principle on new
technology. Those originators of dynasties placed money on the
technology by which America's steely face was forged. These younger
inheritors seemed intent only on amassing and securing their
Brown retired, but privately continued his research for the
remainder of his life. It seemed that his dream of flying off into
space was going to fall to others. He therefore decided to serve the
future best, by supplying an adequate fund of knowledge for future
developers and dreamers. His later experimental work intended to
prove the Unified Field Theory by showing that connections exist
between electrical and gravitational forces.
Years before, he had discovered that electrified carbon resistances
and dielectric masses emitted spurious noise signals. These noise
signals were correlated with cosmic changes. Dr. Brown discovered
that specific rocks, notably granites and basalts, manifested
strangely "spontaneous voltages". Dr. Brown claimed that sudden
gravitational fluctuations were being transformed into electrostatic
charges when encountering special materials.
They were named "petro-voltaic"
charges, the phenomenon referred to as "petro-electricity".
These petro-voltaic charges could be measured, their outputs having
sizable strengths. In very specific silicates, these outputs were
significant. Here was evidence of a reaction process in which space
transient warps were stimulating electrical generation! A large
enough arrangement of the proper rock could be an eternal generator
Dr. Brown recalled the work of Dr. Charles Brush, the
American physical chemist who investigated gravitational phenomena
during the Victorian Era. Dr. Brush claimed that certain rocks
actually fell "slower" than other materials by a slight, but
significant degree. On further examination, Dr. Brush found that
these rocks were possessed of a peculiar "excess heat".
Dr. Brown obtained samples of these rocks, Lintz Basalts,
finding that they indeed gave very high spontaneous voltages when
instrumented. Wire contacts touched the materials on their surface,
yielding several millivolts. The rocks could be sliced, and placed
in multiple contacts to produce a net voltage, which was sizable.
Rock batteries! Dr. Brown's petro-voltaic effect produced nearly one
volt with larger specimens.
Rock voltages are strangely current free, increasing their output at
6 PM each evening and decreasing at 7 AM each day. The effective
output increased with increasing elevation, but lost the smooth
tracings which strip-recorders revealed for rock specimens measured
on the ground. Others duplicated and corroborated these findings
with surprising results (Hodowanec). When certain researchers
traveled to the Andes to test Brown's claims, they received up to
1.8-volt surges from a single rock specimen! Brown discovered that
increased graphite content in the rocks also increased the output
voltage: a reminder of his findings with carbon resistors.
Voltages derived from rock specimens contained two electrical
components. The first, a steady DC bias, contained a second
superimposed fluctuating signal. This latter signal varied with
solar-lunar conditions, positions, and configurations. Minute
electrical bursts were correlated with distant gravitic pulse
sources in space. He now discovered that other silica-rich rocks
spontaneously produced these electrical charges.
This interaction of gravitic fluctuations with crystal lattices had
other applications. With this phenomenon as his astrophysical tool,
he was able to chart stellar effects, which normally required huge
radio telescopes. Dr. Brown sighted pulsar action and supernova
events long before they were formally announced by radio
astronomers. Dr. Brown measured solar flares with these instruments,
all of which were contained in deep vaults once again. The
instruments were shielded from radioactive, thermal, and optical
The sensors continually registered these
same signals, though maintained in the isolated environment.
The alliance of military and business communities have invested
their monies and efforts on ordinary rocketry. The supposedly
dependable military rocket systems were deployed with furious
intent. Huge, dangerous, unwieldy, and flawed, they caused the
military great concern in 1956. Sputnik rattled the smug military
stronghold with deliberation. When called upon to launch the small
grapefruit sized Vanguard satellite into orbit, each industrially
mass-produced rocket failed.
Later in the decade, Dr. Gerald Bull would lose his original
direction and become a formidable arms dealer. Had Dr. Bull
patiently born the time out, he might have made a fortune in the
business of privatized satellite launches. The military chose its
single investment in rocketry, there planting their fortress of
commitment. They did so on behalf of others, not on behalf of
discovery. Space was to be a frontier only for governments and
The outlandish deferment of the space travel dream has turned our
nation inward. Inward and downward. National confusion and chaos is
defined by its true origin and source. Social confusion and social
derangements derive form the engineered deferment of dreams and
expectations. National campaigns propagandize one issue, and then
Often, these reversals are calculated
against the younger generation, since the maintenance of dynastic
fortunes requires the exertion of deliberate social controls with
each new generation.
Nevertheless, discovery and technology are never at rest. They are
now alive in little basement laboratories and garage research
facilities. An armada of indefinite proportions, from which will
emerge the surgings of the dream sea. New discoveries will come and
make their forays into the world. Despite the established
systemology, which methodically harvests and burns these
discoveries, they will yet come. No one suppresses discovery.
Discovery, with the apparitional manifestation, which appears in
certain night skies, is THE relentless force. It destroys those who
seek its harm.
Others will bear the technological crown away when nations seek and
hunt to destroy providentially supplied knowledge. The nation, which
resurrects Brown's research, will rule the air and space. Dreams are
never destroyed. They permeate and haunt societies whose leaders
have rejected their materialization with a special vengeance all
their own. Providence is kind to the dreamer. Visions come to the
Dr. Thomas Townsend Brown loved warm and sunny climates,
spending the remainder of his life in Umatillo, Florida. His
scientific achievements remain legendary among those who honor and
preserve his memory. Imaginative vision itself is the true
spaceflight. I believe he recognized in his own dreams the true
power, acceptance, and glory, which he rightly deserved in life.
His wonderful childhood dream of the