The Basque people (Basque: Euskaldunak)
are an indigenous people inhabiting adjacent areas of Spain and
Their history is therefore interconnected with Spanish and
French history and also with the history of many other past and
present countries, particularly in Europe and the Americas.
Origin of the
First historical references
Location of the ancient tribes
·Red: Basque and other pre-Indoeuropean
In the 1st century AD, Strabo wrote that
the northern parts of what are now Navarre (Nafarroa in Basque) and
Aragon were inhabited by the Vascones. Despite the evident
etymological connection between Vascones and the modern denomination
Basque, there is no proof that the Vascones were the modern Basques'
ancestors or spoke the language that has evolved into modern Basque,
although this is strongly suggested both by the historically
consistent toponymy of the area and by a few personal names on
tombstones dating from the Roman period.
Three different peoples inhabited the territory of the present
Basque Autonomous Community: the Varduli, Caristii and Autrigones.
Historical sources do not state whether these tribes were related to
the Vascones and/or the Aquitani.
Recent archaeological finds at Iruña-Veleia (Araba) have brought to
light some early Basque texts , . Otherwise, the area where a
Basque-related language is best attested from an early period is
Gascony, to the north of the present-day Basque Country, the ancient
inhabitants of which, the Aquitani, may have spoken a language
related to Basque. (The extinct Aquitanian language should not be
confused with Gascon, the Romance language that has been spoken in
Aquitaine since the Middle Ages.)
During the Middle Ages the name Vascones and its derivates
(including Basque) were extended to cover the entire Basque-speaking
population of the present-day Basque Country.
Prehistory: the mainstream view
Although little is known about the prehistory of the Basques before
the period of Roman occupation owing to the difficulty in
identifying evidence for specific cultural traits, the mainstream
view today is that the Basque area shows signs of archaeological
continuity since the Aurignacian period.
Many Basque archaeological sites, including cave dwellings such as
Santimamiñe, provide evidence for continuity from Aurignacian times
down to the Iron Age, shortly before Roman occupation. The
possibility therefore cannot be ruled out of at least some of the
same people having continued to inhabit the area for thirty
A high concentration of Rh- (a typical European trait) among
Basques, who have the highest level worldwide, had already been
taken as suggestive of the antiquity and lack of admixture of the
Basque genetic stock before the advent of modern genetics, which has
confirmed this view. In the 1990s Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza
published his findings according to which one of the main European
autosomal components, PC 5, was shown to be a typically Basque trait
believed to have receded owing to the migration of Eastern peoples
during the Neolithic and Metal Ages.
Further genetic studies on Y chromosome
DNA haplogroups and X chromosome microsatellites also seem to
point to Basques being the most direct descendants from prehistoric
Western Europeans.Having the highest percent of "Western European
genes" but found also at high levels among neighbor populations,as
they are also direct descendants of the same People. However,
Mitochondrial DNA have cast some doubt over this theory
Some scholars have interpreted the etymologies of Basque words for
knife and axe, which contain a root meaning 'stone', as evidence
that the Basque language dates back to the stone age.
The following alternative theories about the prehistoric origins of
the Basques have all had adherents at some time but are rejected by
many scholars and do not represent the consensus view:
Basques as Neolithic settlers: According to this theory, a precursor
of the Basque language might have arrived about 6,000 years ago with
the advance of agriculture. The only archaeological evidence that
could partly support this hypothesis would be that for the Ebro
valley area. Genetics also lends little support.
Basques arrived together with the Indo-Europeans: Linked to an
unproven linguistic hypothesis that includes Basque and some
Caucasian languages in a single super-family.
Even if such a Basque-Caucasian
connection did exist, it would have to be at too great a time depth
to be relevant to Indo-European migrations. Apart from a Celtic
presence in the Ebro valley during the Urnfield culture, archaeology
offers little support for this hypothesis. The Basque language shows
few certain Celtic or other Indo-European loans, other than those
transmitted via Latin or Romance in historic times.
Basques as an Iberian subgroup: Based on occasional use by early
Basques of the Iberian alphabet and Julius Caesar's description of
the Aquitanians as Iberians.
Apparent similarities between the
undeciphered Iberian language and Basque have also been cited, but
this fails to account for the fact that attempts so far to decipher
Iberian using Basque as a reference have failed.
The Basque Country in
Map of the Franco-Cantabrian
region, showing the main caves with mural art.
About 35,000 years ago, the lands that
are now the Basque Country, together with neighboring areas such as
Aquitaine and the Pyrenees) which may have been culturally Basque in
the past, were settled by Homo sapiens, who gradually displaced the
region's earlier Neanderthal population. Arriving from Central
Europe, the settlers brought the Aurignacian culture with them.
At this stage the Basque Country formed part of the archaeological
Franco-Cantabrian province which extended all the way from Asturias
to Provence. Throughout this region, which underwent similar
cultural developments with some local variation, Aurignacian culture
was successively replaced by Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian
cultures. Except for the Aurignacian, these all seem to have
originated in the Franco-Cantabrian region, which suggests no
further waves of immigration into the area during the Paleolithic
Within the present-day Basque Country settlement was limited almost
exclusively to the Atlantic area, probably for climatic reasons.
Important Basque sites include the following:
Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian remains, mural art
Bolinkoba (Bizkaia): Gravettian
Ermitia (Gipuzkoa): Solutrean
Amalda (Gipuzkoa): Gravettian
Aurignacian and Solutrean
Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian
Isturitz (Low Navarre):
Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian, mural art
Gatzarria (Zuberoa): Aurignacian
Epipaleolithic and Neolithic
At the end of the Ice Age, Magdalenian culture gave way to Azilian
culture. Hunters turned from large animals to smaller prey, and
fishing and seafood gathering became important economic activities.
The southern part of the Basque Country was first settled in this
Gradually, Neolithic technology started to filter through from the
Mediterranean coasts, first in the form of isolated pottery items (Zatoia,
Marizulo) and later with the introduction of sheepherding. As in
most of Atlantic Europe, this transition progressed slowly.
In the Ebro valley, more fully Neolithic sites are found.
Anthropometric classification of the remains suggests the
possibility of some Mediterranean colonisation here. A comparable
situation is found in Aquitaine, where settlers may have arrived via
In the second half of the 4th millennium BC, Megalithic culture
appeared throughout the area. Burials become collective (possibly
implying families or clans) and the dolmen predominates, while caves
are also employed in some places.
Unlike the dolmens of the Mediterranean
basin which show a preference for corridors, in the Atlantic area
they are invariably simple chambers.
Copper and Bronze Ages
Cromlech of Okabe
Use of copper and gold, and then other
metals, did not begin in the Basque Country until c. 2500. With the
arrival of metal working, the first urban settlements made their
appearance. One of the most notable towns on account of its size and
continuity was La Hoya in southern Araba, which may have served as a
link, and possibly a trading centre, between Portugal (Vila Nova de
São Pedro culture) and Languedoc (Treilles group). Concurrently,
caves and natural shelters remained in use, particularly in the
Undecorated pottery continued from the Neolithic period up until the
arrival of the Bell Beaker culture with its characteristic pottery
style, which is mainly found around the Ebro Valley. Building of
megalithic structures continued until the Late Bronze Age.
In Aquitaine there was a notable presence of the Artenacian culture,
a culture of bowmen that spread rapidly through Western France and
Belgium from its homeland near the Garonne c. 2400.
In the Late Bronze Age, parts of the southern Basque Country came
under the influence of the pastoralist Cogotas I culture of the
In the Iron Age an Indo-European people, probably Celtic, settled on
territories adjacent to the Basque region and began to exert
influence. Bearers of the late Urnfield culture followed the Ebro
upstream as far as the southern fringes of the Basque Country,
leading to the incorporation of the Hallstatt culture.
In the Basque Country, settlements now appear mainly at points of
difficult access, probably for defensive reasons, and had elaborate
defence systems. During this phase agriculture seemingly became more
important than animal husbandry.
It may be during this period that new megalithic structures, the
(stone circle) or cromlech and the megalith or menhir, made their
The Romans first reached the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula,
including the Basque region, under Pompey in the 1st century BC, but
Roman rule was not consolidated until the time of the Emperor
Augustus. Its laxness suited the Basques well, allowing them to
retain their traditional laws and leadership. There is not much
evidence of Romanization, and the survival of the separate Basque
language has often been attributed to the fact that the Basque
Country, as a poor region, was little developed by the Romans.
However, there was a significant Roman presence in the garrison of
Pompaelo (modern Pamplona, Iruñea in Basque), a city south of the
Pyrenees founded by and named after Pompey. Conquest of the area
further west followed a fierce Roman campaign against the Cantabri
(see Cantabrian Wars). There are archaeological remains from this
period of garrisons protecting commercial routes all along the Ebro
river, and along a Roman road between Asturica and Burdigala.
Many Basques joined the Roman legions, and were often deployed far
away to guard the Empire. A unit of Varduli was stationed on
Hadrian's Wall in the north of Britain for many years, and earned
the title fida (faithful) for some now forgotten service to the
emperor. Romans apparently entered into alliances (foedera, singular
foedus) with many local tribes, allowing them almost total autonomy
within the Empire.
Livy mentions the natural division between the Ager and the Saltus
Vasconum, i.e. between the fields of the Ebro basin and the
mountains to the north. Historians agree that Romanization was
significant in the fertile Ager but almost null in the Saltus, where
Roman towns were scarce and generally small.
The Bagaudae seem to have produced a major impact on Basque
history in the late Empire. In the late 4th century and throughout
the 5th century, the Basque region from the Garonne to the Ebro
escaped Roman control in the midst of revolts. Several Roman villas
(Liédena, Ramalete) were burned to the ground. The proliferation of
mints is interpreted as evidence for an inner limes around Vasconia,
where coins were minted for the purpose of paying troops. After
the fall of the Empire, the struggle against Rome's Visigoth allies
Early Middle Ages
The Duchy of Vasconia
In 407, Basque troops under Roman
command defeated the Vandals, Alans, and Suevi in the
Pyrenees, but in Autumn 409 these tribes crossed
the Basque homelands into Hispania without resistance. In 418
Rome gave the provinces of Aquitania and Tarraconensis to the
Visigoths, as foederati, probably with a view to defending
Novempopulana from Basque raids.
While the Visigoths seem to have claimed the Basque territory from
an early date, all the chronicles point to their systematic failure
to subdue it, punctuated only by sporadic military successes. The
years between 435 and 450 saw a succession of confrontations between
Basque rebels and Romano-Gothic troops, the best documented of which
were the battles of Toulouse, Araceli, and Turiasum.
however, the Suevi under their king Rechiar attacked the Basques,
probably intending to conquer the entire Ebro valley, but they
ultimately accomplished nothing. After 466 the Visigoths crossed
the Pyrenees, probably at Roncesvalles, in an effort to subdue the
upper Ebro valley and occupy Pamplona and Zaragoza, but as the
chronicle of Hydatius, the only Spanish source of the period, ends
in 469, the actual events of the Visigothic confrontation with the
Basques are obscure.
The Franks displaced the Visigoths from Aquitaine in 507, placing
the Basques between the two warring kingdoms. In 581 or thereabouts
both Franks and Visigoths attacked Vasconia (Wasconia in Gregory of
Tours), but neither with success. In 587 the Franks launched a
second attack on the Basques, but they were defeated on the plains
of Aquitaine, implying that Basque settlement or conquest had begun
north of the Pyrenees.
Soon afterwards, the Franks and Goths
created their respective marches: the Duchy of Cantabria in the
south and the Duchy of Vasconia in the north. After
further fighting, the Duchy of Vasconia was consolidated as an
independent polity between 660 and 678. A personal union with the
Duchy of Aquitaine ensured several decades of peace only interrupted
by occasional Visigothic campaigns.
The Muslim invasion of 711 and the rise of the Carolingian dynasty
posed new threats for this state and eventually led to its downfall
Vasconia's submission to the Franks was interrupted by frequent
oubreaks of resistance, the best known of which today is the first
Battle of Roncevaux (Orreaga in Basque, Roncesvalles in Spanish).
The Basque-Muslim state of the Banu Qasi (meaning "heirs of Cassius"
in Arabic), founded c. 800 near Tudela (Tutera in Basque), helped to
maintain peace between the Basques and Al Andalus.
After Charlemagne's death, his son Louis the Pious provoked a new
rebellion led by Gartzia Semeno. A relative of the latter, Enecco
Arista (Basque Eneko Aritza, i.e. Eneko the Oak), took power in
Pamplona c. 824 with the defeat of the Franks by the Pamplonese and
Banu Qasi at the third Battle of Roncevaux.
High Middle Ages
The Kingdom of
Pamplone in the early 10th century
The Kingdom of Pamplona, as this newly
formed Basque state came to be known, consolidated its Frankish and
Muslim borders before turning its attention to its western
neighbours. In 905, the Cronica Albeldense states that the territory
ruled by Pamplona included Nájera and possibly the province of Araba
(referred to as Arba).
Under Sancho III the Great (1000-1035), Pamplona controlled the
entire southern Basque Country; indeed, its power extended from
Burgos and Santander to Northern Aragon. Through marriage Sancho
also became the acting Earl of Castile and held a protectorate over
Gascony and Leon.
Following Sancho III's death, Castile and Aragon became separate
kingdoms ruled by his sons, who were responsible for the first
partitioning of Pamplona. However, the kingdom was restored in 1157
under García Ramírez the Restorer, who fought Castile for control of
the western half of the realm. A peace treaty signed in 1179 ceded
La Rioja and the northeastern part of present-day Old Castile to the
Castilian crown. In return, this pact acknowledged that Araba,
Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa belonged to Navarre.
In 1199, while Navarre's King Sancho VI the Wise was away on an
embassy to Tlemcen, Castile invaded and annexed the western Basque
Country, leaving Navarre landlocked.
Castile divided this territory into the
three modern provinces, but permitted these to retain a large degree
of self-government and their traditional Navarrese rights,
encapsulated in special charters called fueros, which all Castilian
(and later, Spanish) kings have since sworn to uphold on oath.
Basque fishing sites
in Canada in the 16th and 17th centuries
Basques played an important role in
early European ventures into the Atlantic Ocean. The earliest
document to mention the use of whale oil or blubber by the Basques
dates from 670. In 1059, whalers from Lapurdi are recorded to have
presented the oil of the first whale they captured to the viscount.
Apparently the Basques were averse to the taste of whale meat
themselves, but did successful business selling it, and the blubber,
to the French, Castilians and Flemings. Basque whalers used
longboats or traineras which they rowed in the vicinity of the coast
or from a larger ship.
Whaling and cod-fishing are probably responsible for early Basque
contact with both the North Sea and Newfoundland. The date most
frequently mentioned for the first arrival of Basque sailors in
Newfoundland is 1372. Historical sources also document the presence
of Basque fishermen in Iceland as early as 1412.
In Europe the rudder seems to have been a Basque invention, to judge
from three masted ships depicted in a 12th century fresco in Estella
(Navarre; Lizarra in Basque), and also seals preserved in Navarrese
and Parisian historical archives which show similar vessels.
The first mention of use of a rudder was
referred to as steering "à la Navarraise" or "à la Bayonnaise".
Late Middle Ages
The Basque Country in the Late Middle Ages was ravaged by bitter
partisan wars between local ruling families. In Navarre these
conflicts became polarised in a violent struggle between the
Agramont and Beaumont parties. In Bizkaia, the two major warring
factions were named Oinaz and Gamboa. (Cf. the Guelphs and
Ghibellines in Italy).
High defensive structures ("towers")
built by local noble families, few of which survive today, were
frequently razed by fires, sometimes by royal decree.
From the Renaissance
Era to the nineteenth century
Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of
the World, 1984
As the Middle Ages drew to a close, the lands inhabited by the
Basques were allotted to either France and Spain. Most of the Basque
population ended up in Spain, and the resulting situation continues
to this day.
However, Basques in the present-day Spanish provinces of Navarra,
Guipúzcoa, Vizcaya and Álava and in the portion of Navarre that was
parceled out to France managed to retain a large degree of
self-government within their respective provinces, practically
functioning as separate nation-states. The fueros recognized
separate laws, taxation and courts in each province.
Basques serving under the Spanish flag became renowned sailors,
teaching the Dutch to use the harpoon for whaling at the end of the
16th century. Many Basque sailors on Spanish ships were among the
first Europeans to reach North America. A great many early European
settlers in Canada and the United States were of Basque origin.
Back in the Basque Country, the Protestant Reformation made some
inroads and was supported by Queen Jeanne d'Albret of Low Navarre.
The printing of books in Basque, mostly on Christian themes, was
introduced in the 16th century by the Basque-speaking bourgeoisie
around Bayonne in the northern Basque Country. However, Protestants
were persecuted by the Spanish Inquisition. In the northeast, the
Protestant Navarrese king converted to Roman Catholicism and went on
to become King Henry IV of France.
Self-government in the northern Basque Country came to an abrupt end
when the French Revolution centralized government and abolished the
local privileges that had been granted by the ancien régime.
While this development pushed some Basques to counter-revolutionary
positions, others actively participated in the process, and a Basque
constitutional project was drawn up by the Basque revolutionary
This issue brought the Basque Country
into the Convention War of 1793, when all the Basque territories
were nominally French for a time. When the Napoleonic Army invaded
Spain some years later it encountered little difficulty in keeping
the southern Basque provinces loyal to the occupier. Because of this
lack of resistance (see the Battle of Vitoria), the southern Basque
Country was the last part of Spain controlled by the French until
the burning of San Sebastian on August 31, 1813.
Political Spain in
1854, after the first Carlist War
In Spain, ironically, the fueros
were upheld by the traditionalist, and nominally absolutist,
Carlists all through the civil wars of the 19th century, in
opposition to the victorious constitutional forces. The southern
Basque provinces, including Navarre, were the backbone of revolts
seeking to crown Carlos, the male heir to the Spanish throne who had
promised to defend the Basque foral System, and his
descendants after him.
Fearing that they would lose their self-government or fueros
under a modern, liberal constitution, Basques in Spain rushed to
join the traditionalist army, which was financed largely by the
governments of the Basque provinces. The opposing Isabeline Army had
the vital support of British, French (notably the Algerian legion)
and Portuguese forces, and the backing of these governments. The
Irish legion (Tercio) was virtually annihilated by the Basques in
the Battle of Oriamendi.
As differences grew between the Apostolic (official) and Navarrese
(Basque-based) parties within the Carlist camp in the course of the
First Carlist War, the latter signed an armistice, the terms of
which included a promise by the Spaniards to respect Basque
self-government. Spain's failure to keep this promise led to the
Second Carlist War, which concluded in a similar way. The final
outcome was that the Basque provinces, including Navarre, lost most
of their autonomy, while keeping control over taxation through the
Ley Paccionada. Indeed, they still retain this power today in the
form of the so-called conciertos fiscales between the Basque
provinces and the Spanish government in Madrid.
Thus the wars that brought new freedoms to large parts of Spain
resulted in the abolition of most (though not all) of Basques'
traditional liberties. Although the Basque provinces of Spain today
have greater autonomy than other mainland territories, they still
have far less freedom than their ancestors under the present-day
On the other hand, one consequence of the transfer of the Spanish
customs border from the southern boundary of the Basque Country to
the Spanish-French border was the inclusion of Spain's Basque
provinces in a new Spanish market, the protectionism of which
favored the birth and growth of Basque industry.
Late Modern history
Late nineteenth century
High quality iron ore mainly from western Bizkaia, previously worked
in small traditional forges around the western Basque Country, was
now exported to Britain for industrial processing. Then, given the
momentum of new market conditions, Bizkaia acquired its own modern
blast furnaces, opening the doors to local industrialization and
even heavier mining.
The large numbers of workers which both
required were initially drawn from the Basque countryside and the
peasantry of nearby Castile and Rioja, but increasingly immigration
began to flow from the remoter impoverished regions of Galicia and
Andalusia. The Basque Country, hitherto a source of emigrants to
France, Spain and America, faced for the first time in recent
history the prospect of a massive influx of foreigners possessing
different languages and cultures as a side-effect of
industrialization. Most of these immigrants spoke Spanish;
practically all were very poor.
In this period Bizkaia reached one of the highest mortality rates in
Europe. While the new proletariat's wretched working and living
conditions were providing a natural breeding ground for the new
socialist and anarchist ideologies and political movements
characteristic of the late nineteenth century, the end of the
century also saw the birth of a new brand of Basque nationalism and
the founding, in 1895, of the Basque Nationalist Party.
The PNV, pursuing the goal of
independence or self-government for a Basque state (Euzkadi),
represented an ideology which combined Christian-Democratic ideas
with abhorrence towards Spanish immigrants whom they perceived as a
threat to the ethnic, cultural and linguistic integrity of the
Basque race while also serving as a channel for the importation of
new-fangled, leftist (and "un-Basque") ideas.
The early twentieth century
In 1931, the newly formed Spanish republic granted self-government
to Catalonia, which had a strong nationalist movement and its own
vigorous linguistic and cultural identity. The Basques had to wait
several years longer, in fact until the Spanish Civil War was
underway, to be belatedly granted similar rights.
Basque nationalists and leftists in Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa sided with
the Spanish republicans, but many in Navarre, a Carlist stronghold,
supported General Francisco Franco's insurgent forces. (The latter
were known in Spain as "Nacionales"—usually rendered in English as
"Nationalists"—which can be highly misleading in the Basque
context). One of the greatest atrocities of this war, immortalized
by Picasso's emblematic mural, was the bombing of Gernika by German
planes, a Bizkaian town of great historical and symbolic importance,
at Franco's bidding.
In 1937, the troops of the new Basque Autonomous Government
surrendered to Franco's fascist Italian allies in Santoña on
condition that the life of the Basque soldiers was respected (Santoña
The Franco dictatorship
With the war over, the new dictator began his drive to consolidate
Spain as a monolithic nation-state. Franco's regime passed harsh
laws against all minorities in the Spanish state, including Basques,
aimed at wiping out their cultures and languages. Calling Vizcaya
and Guipúzcoa "traitor provinces", he abolished what remained of
their autonomy. Navarre and Álava were allowed to conserve a small
local police force and limited tax prerogatives.
Two developments during the Franco dictatorship (1939-1975) deeply
affected life in the Basque Country in this period and afterwards.
One was a new wave of immigration from the poorer parts of Spain to
Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa during the sixties and seventies in response
to the region's escalating industrialization. The resulting
imposition of Spanish language and cultural values and widespread
attitudes of Spanish political chauvinism represented further
obstacles to Basque attempts to resist the Spanish regime's
offensive to stamp out expressions of a distinctive Basque identity.
Secondly, Spanish persecution provoked a strong backlash in the
Basque Country from the sixties onwards, notably in the form of a
new separatist movement, Basque Country And Freedom/Euskadi Ta
Askatasuna, better known by its Basque initials ETA, which
eventually turned to the use of arms as a form of protest. But ETA
was only one component of a broad social, cultural, political and
language movement rejecting Spanish domination but also sharply
criticizing the inertia of the Basque Country's own conservative
nationalists (organized in the PNV).
To this day the dialectic between these
two political orientations, the abertzale (patriotic or
nationalist) Left and the PNV, dominate the nationalist part of the
Basque political spectrum, the rest of which is occupied by Spanish
Franco's authoritarian regime continued until his death in 1975,
after which a new Spanish constitution provided for the union of
three provinces, Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa, in the guise of the
Basque Autonomous Community, while Navarre, which was not allowed to
opt into the BAC, was made into a separate autonomous region.
Between 1979 and 1983, the Spanish
government granted the Basque Autonomous Community limited
self-governing powers ("autonomy") including its own elected
parliament, police force, school system and control over taxation.
These were part of the self-rule "package" the Spanish government
agreed to hand over to the Basques, but twenty-five years on Madrid
has yet to deliver other promised powers that formed part of the
These changes, which have repeatedly been rejected by the Abertzale
Left, did not satisfy the national aspirations of many Basques, nor
did they bring peace to the Basque Country. Spain still exerts
extensive influence over Basque life, some spheres of which, such as
harbor authorities, customs, employment, the armed forces and
foreign relations, remain entirely under jurisdiction of the central
The central state apparatus, including
politicians, police, army and prisons, have continued to persecute
members and sympathizers of the abertzale movement and to
obstruct Basques' attempts to construct their own political
structures and to articulate and defend a national sovereignty
project, mainly due to terrorist activity of violent groups
presumably related to the abertzale left. Spurred on by this
conflict, various forms of Basque pro-independence activism,
pursuing objectives supported by part of the population, have also
continued since Franco's death.
This activism includes democratic
parties that search for a peaceful resolution to the conflict but
they are repeatedly banned by the central government for violent
street riots and terrorist attacks.
Collins, Roger. "The Basques in
Aquitaine and Navarre: Problems of Frontier Government." War and
Society in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of J. O. Prestwich.
edd. J. Gillingham and J. C. Holt. Cambridge: Boydell Press,
1984. Reprinted in Law, Culture and Regionalism in Early
Medieval Spain. Variorum, 1992. ISBN 0-86078-308-1.
- Genes, pueblos y lenguas,
L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, 1996 ISBN 84-8432-084-7
European Genetic Variation (with
Cavalli-Sforza's PC maps)
Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric
Admixture on the Genome of Europeans,
Isabelle Dupanloup et al.
MS205 Minisatellite Diversity in Basques:
Evidence for a Pre-Neolithic Component,
Santos Alonso and John A.L. Armour
Temporal Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the
Basque Country: Influence of Post-Neolithic
Events, A. alzualde et al.
The Mitochondrial Lineage U8a Reveals a
Paleolithic Settlement in the Basque Country
(Gonzalez, et al; May 2006)
Alianzas (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)
Saltus Vasconum (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)
Bagaudas (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)
- Mikel Sorauren, Historia de
Navarra, el Estado Vasco, 1998, ISBN
- Collins, 6.
- Collins, 7.
Ducado de Vasconia (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)
Crónica Albeldense (CSIC)
- T. Urainqui & J.M. de
Olaizola, La Navarra Marítima, 1998, ISBN
Espainako Gerra Zibilia Euskal Herrian