Dr. C. A. Winters
This translation of the 3 panels of the cuneiform writing reads as follows:
"Approach in the future (one) endowed with great protection the
"[The Divine One Nia(sh)
to] Establish Purity, Establish Gladness, Establish
Character". ("This favorable oracle of the people to establish purity and to
establish character [for all who seek it]".)
"[Use this talisman (the
Fuente bowl)] To sprout [oh] diviner the unique
advise [at] the temple".
"The righteous shrine, anoint (this) shrine, anoint (this) shrine; The
leader takes an oath [to] Establish purity, a favorable oracle (and to)
Establish character. [Oh leader of the cult] Open up a unique light [for
all], [who] wish for a noble life".
Decipherment of the Cuneiform Writing on the Fuente Magna Bowl
Decipherment of the Front and side inscriptions on the Pokotia Monolith
The Pokotia signs are found on the front of the statue below the hands.
The Pokotia signs are found on the right and left thighs of the figure. The
symbols on the Pokotia statue are read from top to bottom, right to left.
The signs have syllabic values.
" Distribute/ the opening of the Oracle to mankind./ Proclaim [that
Putaki's] offspring (are to) witness esteem./Act justly (now), to send forth
the oracle to nourish knowledge./ Appreciate the cult. [All to] witness the
divine decree./ Send forth the soothsayer to capture the speech [from the
oracle] to make clear the ideal norm [ for living, as a guide for mankind].
[Citizens] witness in favor of this human being to create wisdom (for all
mankind), and send forth [an example of good] character [Indeed]!"
There is an additional inscription on the left side of the statue.
"The Diviner proclaims the phenomenal depth of this area , of the deity's
power, to entrust man with wisdom".
On the far right side of the
Pokotia statue there are inscriptions which
appear to be engraved in a box that provide the name of the oracle. Below is
"Good Putaki, a wise man and
progenitor of (many) people."
There is an additional inscription on the right side of the statue.
" Take an oath to witness character and wisdom. Witness the deity's power [
to make for you] a righteous soul".
Decipherment of the Back and side inscriptions on the Pokotia Monolith
The inscriptions on the
Pokotia figure are written in the Sumerian language.
The signs used to write the messages on the Pokotia monolith were
non-liguture Proto-Sumerian symbols.
The inscription under the hand on the Pokotia figure is very interesting:
" The oracle Putaki conducts man to truth. (This) esteemed (and) precious
oracle to sprout esteem, (now) witness (its) escape".
The Decipherment of the back inscription of
Putaki is below.
The writing on
the back is written in Proto-Sumerian. The language used to read the
inscriptions was Sumerian.
"Proclaim the establishment of character. The strong father (Putaki) to send
forth the divination. Strong wisdom (in this) phenomenal area of the deity's
power. Capture the speech (of the oracle) . (The oracle is ) very strong to
benefit (and) nourish the sprouting (of) character. Tell human being(s) (the
oracle's) benefit. The oracle to open (up) much (benefit for all)."
" The ideal norm (is the) oracle (of Putaki). (This) oracle is (in) a
phenomenal area of the deity's power". Distribute to all humanity (the
divine decree). Snare a portion (of the) pure voice. (The oracle to) send
forth gladness. Agitate the mouth (of the oracle), to send forth the
divination. The diviner speaks good."
" The ideal norm (is this) oracle. (This) oracle (gives) divine
decree. Distribute to all humanity (the divine decree). Snare a portion (of
the) pure voice. (The oracle to) send forth gladness. Agitate the mouth (of
the oracle), to send forth the divination. The diviner speaks good."
"The divine decree to become visible and glisten (from the oracle's own)
mouth. Open up the divination. Agitate the oracle (to) send forth (now)
wisdom and character. Open (the oracle) to distribute the divine decree (for
all it is) lawful and righteous Good. Send forth the sustenance of the pure
oracle. Stand upright (Oh oracle) to appear as a witness speaking purity.
The oracle (of Putaki) to open (up and) send forth gladness and character".
"(Putaki) speaks (in) true measure, to send forth gladness (for all). Send
forth nourish(ment). (The oracle Putaki is) the father of wisdom (and)
benefit (for all). (The oracle) to become a visible witness of the diving
decree and knowledge. (This) pure oracle speaks the divine decree (and)
makes (it) a visible witness (of the deity's power)."
The inscriptions on the back of the Pokotia statue define the role of the
Putaki oracle in the community.
It would appear that the people should
recognize this oracle as a source of "truth" and glad tidings. Its
additional role was to establish righteousness, wisdom and good character
for the members of the community who might use this oracle to communicate
with the gods.
Throughout this inscription the Putaki oracle is called the "father". For
example, in column 1, it was written that:
"Proclaim the establishment of
character. The strong father (Putaki) to send forth the divination".
column 4, we discover that [Putaki is] the father of wisdom (and) benefit
(for all). This suggest that Putaki was recognized as the great ancestor of
other oracles in the region.
This suggest that offspring of this oracle was probably situated in other
parts of Peru-Bolivia, where the people went to divine the future,
communicate with the gods or ancestors, or simply obtain blessing and glad
tidings from the oracle.
Decipherment of the Back and side inscriptions on the
Bernardo's discovery of the Pokotia monument supports the research of the
Verrills that the Sumerians came to South America in search of metals.
Verrill and R. Verrill, Americas ancient civilizations (New York: Putnam,
1953), and J. Bailey Sailing to Paradise, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994)
maintain that the area around Lake Titicaca may have been called
by the Sumerians.
According to the Verrills and Bailey the
Sumerians came to
this area in search of tin.
They support this view by a discussion of the
Sumerian traditions, that Sumerians set sail to the land west of the
Mediterranean that they called the "Tin land of the West" or
It is interesting to note that a major center in this area is Potosi.
suggest that Potosi may relate to the Sumerian term Patesi the Sumerian term
for 'priest king'.
The writing on the Pokotia monument makes it clear that the
was a heard by many people in ancient Bolivia. This is interesting because
the Pachacamac oracle was very popular in this area in historic times.
According to Moseley, satellite shrines of one or another of his offspring
were worshipped by South Americans (p.68).
During Inca (Sumerian: En-ka - Enki - "Great Lord") times, the temple city of
Pachacamac , contained the idol of Pachacamac which was a commanding oracle
drawing devotees from Ecuador in the North through Bolivia in the South.
People came from far and wide for a Pachacamac prophesy (Moseley, p.68). The
Pokotia statue makes it clear that the popularity of oracles in this part of
South America existed all the way back in time to the creation of the Putaki
There is other support of the early presence of writing in South America
dating back to ancient times.
Moseley published a number of inscribed
bricks and a Tiwanaku portrait head. The characters on the bricks and statue
are identical to the Pokotia writing. The symbols on the inscribed
bricks are identical to the na, I, a, mash/bi, mi, ma, po, ki, ta and
signs listed on the Pokotia sign list above. The symbols on the
head are identical to the me and mash/bi signs found on the Pokotia
In addition to evidence from South American popular culture (oracle worship)
and archaeology there is linguistic evidence that support the Sumerian
presence in Bolivia. Mario Montano has found startling linguistic evidence
that indicates a Sumerian substratum in the Aymara and
These languages are spoken in Peru-Bolivia.
Many Aymara terms relate to the metaphysical world. This is not surprising
given this decipherment of the Pokotia statue and the Magna Fuente bowl
which indicated that the Sumerians had established many aspects of their
religion in Bolivia.
The linguistic evidence supports the view that many of these Sumerians were
The Sumerian term for copper was urudu, this term agrees with the
Aymara terms for gold 'ouri ' and copper 'anta,
yawri '. The similarity
between urudu and, yawri and ouri suggest that the
Sumerians may have been
the first people in the area to exploit the metals found throughout the
Titicaca area and Bolivia.
The presence of Sumerian terms in the Aymara language, and Sumerian writing
on the Fuente Magna bowl and Pokotia statue make it obvious that Sumerian
civilization was formerly widespread in South America.
This leads me to believe that Bolivia and Peru, may represent the
of the West" mentioned in the Sumerian inscriptions.
If this is
Bolivia-Peru may have been called the mountains of Sunset or the "Sunset
Land", by the ancient Sumerians.
Church of Tihuanaco, built with stone fron the monuments of Tihuanaco ,
front view . Idols of First Period of Tihuanaco, at the sides of the Church
In summary , the Pokotia statue is an oracle.
The name of this oracle was Putaki. It would appear that formerly the area where the Pokotia monolithic
was found was recognized as a major religious center where citizens came to
hear the oracle recited by soothsayers or shaman.
The Pokotia area along
with other areas further north was probably the Sunset Land.
It is interesting to note that the name for the oracle Putaki is very close
to the name of the site (Pokotia) where the artifact was found. This suggest
continuity between the name of the oracle and the contemporary place name.
It is also interesting to note that the Pokotia statue and Tiahuanaco
monuments share similar headdresses and rib impressions along the chest area
of several monuments.
Both idols differ completely from those of later periods and must be very
old , judging not only by their bad state of preservation and discoloration
which their rocky material , the typical sandstone of that period, has
undergone, but also because they are sculptured in a realistic manner , a
circumstance characteristic of the First Period.
- Prof. Ing. Arthur Ponsnansky
Here we see a comparison of the Pokotia (left) and Tiahuanaco
monolithic figures. The figures appear to be either in a setting
pose or standing. In both cases the hands are placed on the side
of the figures. The hands on the seated figure are placed on the
These statues appear to have the same headdress and similar scarification
across the chest or rib cage area. The general situation of similar
"scarification" across the chest and headdress suggest that these artifacts
may date back to the same period.
I can not provide a date to the figure. But the fact that it was written in
Sumerian, like the Fuente Magna bowl suggest that the
continued to be spoken in this area for an extended period of time ( ).
suggest that we may find some Sumerian linguistic relations with the
languages presently spoken in the area.
First of all the Sumerian language is not Semitic. Cuneiform was not just
used to write Semitic languages, it was also used to write Hurrian,
(Indo-European languages), Sumerian and Elamite, languages which were not
As a result, I hold the belief that the authors of the Fuente Bowl
and Pokotia monument spoke a Sumerian language because of the appearance of both
cuneiform and Proto-Sumerian symbols on these figures.
Given this visual identification of two writing systems on these artifacts
we have to look at Mesopotamian history and see who used both Proto-Sumerian
writing and who used cuneiform writing at the same time? The answer is:
Once I arrived at this hypothesis, I had to test the Sumerian hypothesis. To
test this hypothesis I had to attempt to decipher the writing by
interpreting the signs using the Sumerian language.
Before I could read the text on these monuments I had to explore the origins
of the Sumerian speaking people. Following the lead of Rawlinson, I compared
the Sumerian language to the Dravidian and
show affinity in grammar and vocabulary. This made it clear that the
speakers of this language probably came from the same original homeland.
Using archaeological and historical evidence I soon discovered that the
Sumerians, Proto-Mande and Proto-Dravidians probably lived in the highland
regions of Africa. I also found that through out the former homeland of the
speakers of the language there were a number of symbols used by these people
called Libyco-Berber writing.
During the research of these symbols I discovered that Libyco-Berber writing
could not be read using the Tuarag, Berbers, and Punic languages. This made
it clear that the language of this writing had to be different from the
speakers of these languages.
Research indicated that the Mande speaking people formerly lived in the
Sahara and ancient Libya, and that they were pushed southward as a result of
the Sahara becoming a desert.
Eventually I discovered the evidence that the Vai maintained that their writing was very ancient.
Given the fact that
the Vai syllabary had phonetic values suggested that I could use the
values of the Vai writing to read the ancient Libyco-Berber writing. I
tested this hypothesis, and learned that whereas the writing could not be
read using Taurag and Punic, they could be read in Mande.
This discovery was quite illuminating.
Because it suggested that I could
read other writing systems associated with the ancient Proto-Saharans
(Dravidian, Sumerian and Mande speakers).
Next I tried to decipher the
Indus Valley writing.
I knew from my linguistic
work that Dravidian was a substratum in the Indo-European languages spoken
in India and that there was still a Dravidian language spoken in Pakistan
This suggested that the Indus Valley people may have spoken a Dravidian
Again, I used the Vai writing.
First I gave the Indus Valley signs, the phonetic values of identical Vai
Then I read the inscriptions using the Tamil language.
Voila, I was able to read the writing. Since my decipherment of the script
in the 1980's I have published a grammar and dictionary of the signs which
was published in three issues of the Journal of Tamil Studies.
Given the success in reading Libyco-Berber and the Indus Valley writing, it
was only natural for me to read the Proto-Sumerian and Minoan A writing
using Vai symbolism, because as I said earlier, the speakers of Sumerian
(and the Eteo-Cretans) originally came from the Sahara.
As a result, when I
recognized cuneiform writing on the Fuente Bowl I hypothesized that the
other symbols on the bowl might be Proto-Sumerian, my subsequent reading of
the inscriptions confirmed the hypothesis.
Today, hundreds of languages can be written using our alphabet. And in
ancient times cuneiform was used to write: Hurrian, Hittite, Elamite,
Akkadian, Sumerian and etc.
Therefore, it is not surprising that the
Sumerians, Minoans, Indus Valley people, Libyco-Berber people and Mande used
the same writing.