David Hatcher Childress
Volume 7, Number 5
November-December 2000 USA
Extracted from Chapter 6
Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the
Volume 7, Number 5
November-December 2000 USA
Religious texts and
geological evidence suggest that several parts of the world have experienced
destructive atomic blasts in ages past
The following item appeared in the New York Herald Tribune on
February 16, 1947 (and was repeated by Ivan T. Sanderson in the
January 1970 issue of his magazine, Pursuit):
When the first
atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico, the desert sand turned to
fused green glass. This fact, according to the magazine Free
World, has given certain archaeologists a turn. They have been
digging in the ancient
Euphrates Valley and have uncovered a layer of
agrarian culture 8,000 years old, and a layer of herdsman
culture much older, and a still older caveman culture. Recently,
they reached another layer of fused green glass.
It is well known that
atomic detonations on or above a sandy desert will melt the silicon
in the sand and turn the surface of the Earth into a sheet of glass.
But if sheets of ancient desert glass can be found in various parts
of the world, does it mean that atomic wars were fought in the
ancient past or, at the very least, that atomic testing occurred in
the dim ages of history?
This is a startling theory, but one
that is not lacking in evidence, as such ancient sheets of desert
glass are a geological fact. Lightning strikes can sometimes fuse
sand, meteorologists contend, but this is always in a distinctive
root-like pattern. These strange geological oddities are called
fulgurites and manifest as branched tubular forms
rather than as
flat sheets of fused sand. Therefore, lightning is
largely ruled out as the cause of such finds by geologists, who
prefer to hold onto the theory of a meteor or comet strike as the
cause. The problem with this theory is that there is usually no
crater associated with these anomalous sheets of glass.
Brad Steiger and Ron Calais report in their book,
Mysteries of Time and Space,1
Albion W. Hart, one of the first engineers to graduate from
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was assigned an engineering
project in the interior of Africa. While he and his men were
traveling to an almost inaccessible region, they first had to cross
a great expanse of desert.
"At the time he was
puzzled and quite unable to explain a large expanse of greenish
glass which covered the sands as far as he could see," writes
Margarethe Casson in an article on Hart's life in the
Rocks and Minerals (no. 396, 1972). She then goes on to
mention: "Later on, during his life, he passed by the White Sands
area after the first atomic explosion there, and he recognized the
same type of silica fusion which he had seen fifty years earlier in
the African desert."
Tektites: A Terrestrial Explanation?
Large desert areas strewn with mysterious globules of "glass"--known
as tektites--are occasionally discussed in geological literature.
These blobs of "hardened glass" (glass is a liquid, in fact) are thought to
come from meteorite impacts in most instances, but the evidence shows that
in many cases there is no impact crater.
Another explanation is that tektites have a terrestrial
explanation--one that includes atomic war or high-tech weapons capable of melting sand. The
tektite debate was summed up in an article entitled "The
by John O'Keefe, published in the August 1978 edition of
If tektites are
terrestrial, it means that some process exists by which soil or
common rocks can be converted in an instant into
homogeneous, water-free, bubble-free glass and be propelled
thousands of miles above the atmosphere. If tektites
come from the Moon, it seems to follow that there is at least
one powerful volcano somewhere on the Moon that has erupted at
least as recently as 750,000 years ago. Neither possibility is
easy to accept. Yet one of them must be accepted, and I believe
it is feasible to pick the more reasonable one by rejecting the
The key to solving
the tektite problem is an insistence on a physically reasonable
hypothesis and a resolute refusal to be impressed by mere
numerical coincidences such as the similarity of terrestrial
sediments to tektite material. I believe that the lunar
volcanism hypothesis is the only one physically possible, and
that we have to accept it. If it leads to unexpected but not
impossible conclusions, that is precisely its utility.
To cite just one example of the utility, the lunar origin of
strongly supports the idea that the Moon was formed by
fission of the Earth.
Tektites are indeed much more like terrestrial
rocks than one would expect of a chance assemblage. If tektites
come from a lunar magma, then deep inside the Moon there must be
material that is very much like the mantle of the Earth--more
like the mantle than it is like the shallower parts of the Moon
from which the lunar surface basalts have originated. If the
Moon was formed by fission of the Earth, the object that became
the Moon would have been heated intensely and from the outside,
and would have lost most of its original mass and in particular
the more volatile elements. The lavas constituting most of the
Moon's present surface were erupted early in the Moon's history,
when its heat was concentrated in the shallow depleted zone
quite near the surface. During the recent periods represented by
tektite falls, the sources of lunar volcanism have necessarily
been much deeper, so that any volcanoes responsible for tektites
have drawn on the lunar material that suffered least during the
period of ablation and is therefore most like unaltered
terrestrial mantle material. Ironically, that would explain why
tektites are in some ways more like terrestrial rocks
than they are like the rocks of the lunar surface.
Mysterious Glass in the Egyptian Sahara
One of the strangest mysteries of ancient Egypt is that of the great glass
sheets that were only discovered in 1932. In December of that year,
Patrick Clayton, a surveyor for the Egyptian Geological Survey, was
driving among the dunes of the Great Sand Sea near the Saad Plateau
in the virtually uninhabited area just north of the southwestern corner of
Egypt, when he heard his tyres crunch on something that wasn't sand. It
turned out to be large pieces of marvelously clear, yellow-green glass.
In fact, this wasn't just any ordinary glass, but ultra-pure glass that was
an astonishing 98 per cent silica. Clayton wasn't the first
person to come across this field of glass, as various 'prehistoric' hunters
and nomads had obviously also found the now-famous Libyan Desert Glass
(LDG). The glass had been used in the past to make knives and
sharp-edged tools as well as other objects. A carved scarab of LDG
was even found in Tutankhamen's tomb, indicating that the
glass was sometimes used for jewellery.
An article by Giles Wright in the British science magazine New
Scientist (July 10, 1999), entitled "The Riddle of the Sands",
LDG is the purest natural silica glass ever found. Over a
thousand tones of it are strewn across hundreds of kilometers of bleak
desert. Some of the chunks weigh 26 kilograms, but most LDG exists in smaller, angular pieces--looking like shards left when a giant
green bottle was smashed by colossal forces.
According to the article, LDG, pure as it is, does contain
tiny bubbles, white wisps and inky black swirls. The whitish inclusions
consist of refractory minerals such as cristobalite. The ink-like
swirls, though, are rich in iridium, which is diagnostic of an
extraterrestrial impact such as a meteorite or comet, according to
conventional wisdom. The general theory is that the glass was created by the
searing, sand-melting impact of a cosmic projectile.
However, there are serious problems with this theory, says Wright,
and many mysteries concerning this stretch of desert containing the pure
glass. The main problem: Where did this immense amount of widely dispersed
glass shards come from? There is no evidence of an impact crater of any
kind; the surface of the Great Sand Sea shows no sign of a giant
crater, and neither do microwave probes made deep into the sand by satellite
Furthermore, LDG seems to be too pure to be derived from a
messy cosmic collision. Wright mentions that known impact craters,
such as the one at
Wabar in Saudi Arabia, are littered with bits of iron and
other meteorite debris. This is not the case with the Libyan Desert
Glass site. What is more, LDG is concentrated in two
areas, rather than one. One area is oval-shaped; the other is a circular
ring, six kilometers wide and 21 kilometers in diameter. The ring's
wide centre is devoid of the glass.
One theory is that there was a soft projectile impact: a meteorite, perhaps
30 meters in diameter, may have detonated about 10 kilometers or so above
the Great Sand Sea, the searing blast of hot air melting the sand
beneath. Such a craterless impact is thought to have occurred in the 1908
event in Siberia--at least as far as mainstream science is concerned. That
event, like the pure desert glass, remains a mystery.
Another theory has a meteorite glancing off the desert surface, leaving a
glassy crust and a shallow crater that was soon filled in. But there are two
known areas of LDG. Were there two cosmic projectiles in
Alternatively, is it possible that the vitrified desert is the result of
atomic war in the ancient past? Could a Tesla-type
beam weapon have melted the desert, perhaps in a test?
An article entitled "Dating the Libyan Desert Silica-Glass" appeared
in the British journal Nature (no. 170) in 1952. Said the author,
Pieces of natural
silica-glass up to 16 lb in weight occur scattered sparsely in
an oval area, measuring 130 km north to south and 53 km from
east to west, in the Sand Sea of the Libyan Desert.
This remarkable material, which is almost pure (97 per cent
silica), relatively light (sp. gin. 2.21), clear and
yellowish-green in color, has the qualities of a gemstone. It
was discovered by the Egyptian Survey Expedition under Mr
P.A. Clayton in 1932, and was thoroughly investigated by
Dr L.J. Spencer,
who joined a special expedition of the Survey for this
purpose in 1934.
The pieces are found in sand-free
corridors between north-south dune ridges, about 100 m high and
2-5 km apart. These corridors or "streets" have a rubbly
surface, rather like that of a "speedway" track, formed by
angular gravel and red loamy weathering debris overlying Nubian
sandstone. The pieces of glass lie on this surface or partly
embedded in it. Only a few small fragments were found below the
surface, and none deeper than about one meter. All the pieces on
the surface have been pitted or smoothed by sand-blast. The
distribution of the glass is patchy.
natural, the origin of the
Libyan silica-glass is uncertain. In its
constitution it resembles the tektites of supposed
cosmic origin, but these are much smaller. Tektites
are usually black, although one variety found in Bohemia and
Moravia and known as moldavite is clear deep-green. The
Libyan silica-glass has also been compared with the
glass formed by the fusion of sand in the heat generated by the
fall of a great meteorite; for example, at Wabar in Arabia and at Henbury in central Australia.
Reporting the findings of his expedition, Dr Spencer
said that he had not been able to trace the Libyan glass
to any source; no fragments of meteorites or indications of
meteorite craters could be found in the area of its
distribution. He said: "It seemed easier to assume that it had
simply fallen from the sky."
It would be of considerable
interest if the time of origin or arrival of the silica-glass in
the Sand Sea could be determined geologically or
archaeologically. Its restriction to the surface or top layer of
a superficial deposit suggests that it is not of great antiquity
from the geological point of view. On the other hand, it has
clearly been there since prehistoric times. Some of the flakes
were submitted to Egyptologists in Cairo, who regarded them as
"late Neolithic or pre-dynastic".
In spite of a careful search by Dr Spencer and the
late Mr A. Lucas, no objects of silica-glass could be
found in the collections from Tut-Ankh-Amen's tomb
or from any of the other dynastic tombs. No potsherds were
encountered in the silica-glass area, but in the neighborhood of
the flakings some "crude spear-points of glass" were found; also
some quartzite implements, "quernstones" and ostrich-shell
Oakley is apparently incorrect when he says that LDG was not found in
Tutankhamen's tomb, as according to Wright a piece was
At any rate, the vitrified areas of the Libyan Desert are yet to be
explained. Are they evidence of an ancient war--a war that may have turned
North Africa and Arabia into the desert that it is today?
The Vitrified Forts of Scotland
One of the great mysteries of classical archaeology is the existence of many
vitrified forts in Scotland. Are they also evidence of some
ancient atomic war? Maybe, but maybe not.
There are said to be at least 60 such forts throughout Scotland. Among the
most well-known are Tap o'Noth, Dunnideer, Craig Phadraig (near Inverness),
Abernathy (near Perth), Dun Lagaidh (in Ross), Cromarty, Arka-Unskel, Eilean
na Goar, and Bute-Dunagoil on the Sound of Bute off Arran Island. Another
well-known vitrified fort is the Cauadale hill-fort in Argyll, West
One of the best examples of a vitrified fort is Tap o'Noth, which is near the village of Rhynie in northeastern Scotland. This massive
fort from prehistory is on the summit of a mountain of the same name which,
being 1,859 feet (560 meters) high, commands an impressive view of the
Aberdeenshire countryside. At first glance it seems that the walls are made
of a rubble of stones, but on closer look it is apparent that they are made
not of dry stones but of melted rocks! What were once
individual stones are now black and cindery masses, fused together by heat
that must have been so intense that molten rivers of rock once ran down the
Reports on vitrified forts were made as far back as 1880 when Edward
Hamilton wrote an article entitled "Vitrified Forts on the West Coast
of Scotland" in the Archaeological Journal (no. 37, 1880, pp.
227&endash;243). In his article, Hamilton describes several sites in
At the point where
Loch na Nuagh begins to narrow, where the opposite shore is
about one-and-a-half to two miles distant, is a small promontory
connected with the mainland by a narrow strip of sand and grass,
which evidently at one time was submerged by the rising tide. On
the flat summit of this promontory are the ruins of a vitrified
fort, the proper name for which is Arka-Unskel.
The rocks on which this fort are placed are metamorphic gneiss,
covered with grass and ferns, and rise on three sides almost
perpendicular for about 110 feet from the sea level. The smooth
surface on the top is divided by a slight depression into two
portions. On the largest, with precipitous sides to the sea, the
chief portion of the fort is situated, and occupies the whole of
the flat surface. It is of somewhat oval form. The circumference
is about 200 feet, and the vitrified walls can be traced in its
entire length. We dug under the vitrified mass, and there found
what was extremely interesting, as throwing some light on the
manner in which the fire was applied for the purpose of
vitrification. The internal part of the upper or vitrified wall
for about a foot or a foot-and-a-half was untouched by the fire,
except that some of the flat stones were slightly agglutinated
together, and that the stones, all feldspatic, were placed in
layers one upon another.
It was evident, therefore, that
a rude foundation of boulder stones was first formed upon the
original rock, and then a thick layer of loose, mostly flat
stones of feldspatic sand, and of a different kind from those
found in the immediate neighborhood, were placed on this
foundation, and then vitrified by heat applied externally. This
foundation of loose stones is found also in the vitrified fort
of Dun Mac Snuichan, on Loch Etive.
Hamilton describes another vitrified fort that is much larger,
situated on the island at the entrance of Loch Ailort.
This island, locally
Eilean na Goar, is the most eastern and is bounded
on all sides by precipitous gneiss rocks; it is the abode and
nesting place of numerous sea birds. The flat surface on the top
is 120 feet from the sea level, and the remains of the vitrified
fort are situated on this, oblong in form, with a continuous
rampart of vitrified wall five feet thick, attached at the SW
end to a large upright rock of gneiss. The space enclosed by
this wall is 420 feet in circumference and 70 feet in width. The
rampart is continuous and about five feet in thickness. At the
eastern end is a great mass of wall in situ, vitrified on both
sides. In the centre of the enclosed space is a deep depression
in which are masses of the vitrified wall strewed about,
evidently detached from their original site.
Hamilton naturally asks a few obvious questions about the forts. Were
these structures built as a means of defense? Was the vitrification the
result of design or accident? How was the vitrification produced?
In this vitrification process, huge blocks of stones have been fused with
smaller rubble to form a hard, glassy mass. Explanations for the
vitrification are few and far between, and none of them is universally
One early theory was that these forts are located on ancient volcanoes (or
the remains of them) and that the people used molten stone ejected from
eruptions to build their settlements.
This idea was replaced with the theory that the builders of the walls had
designed the forts in such a way that the vitrification was purposeful in
order to strengthen the walls. This theory postulated that fires had been
lit and flammable material added to produce walls strong enough to resist
the dampness of the local climate or the invading armies of the enemy. It is
an interesting theory, but one that presents several problems. For starters,
there is really no indication that such vitrification actually strengthens
the walls of the fortress; rather, it seems to weaken them. In many cases,
the walls of the forts seem to have collapsed because of the fires. Also,
since the walls of many Scottish forts are only partially vitrified, this
would hardly have proved an effective building method.
Julius Caesar described a type of wood and stone fortress, known as a
murus gallicus, in his account of the Gallic Wars. This was
interesting to those seeking solutions to the vitrified fort mystery because
these forts were made of a stone wall filled with rubble, with wooden logs
inside for stability. It seemed logical to suggest that perhaps the burning
of such a wood-filled wall might create the phenomenon of vitrification.
Some researchers are sure that the builders of the forts caused the
vitrification. Arthur C. Clarke quotes one team of chemists from the
Natural History Museum in London who were studying the many forts:
Considering the high
temperatures which have to be produced, and the fact that
possibly sixty or so vitrified forts are to be seen in a limited
geographical area of Scotland, we do not believe that this type
of structure is the result of accidental fires. Careful planning
and construction were needed.
However, one Scottish archaeologist, Helen Nisbet, believes that the
vitrification was not done on purpose by the builders of the forts. In a
thorough analysis of rock types used, she reveals that most of the forts
were built of stone easily available at the chosen site and not chosen for
their property of vitrification.
The vitrification process itself, even if purposely set, is quite a mystery.
A team of chemists on Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World
subjected rock samples from 11 forts to rigorous chemical analysis, and
stated that the temperatures needed to produce the vitrification were so
intense--up to 1,100°C--that a simple burning of walls with
wood interlaced with stone could not have achieved such temperatures.
Nevertheless, experiments carried out in the 1930s by the famous
archaeologist V. Gordon Childe and his colleague Wallace
Thorneycroft showed that forts could be set on fire and generate enough
heat to vitrify the stone.8
In 1934, these two designed a test wall that was 12 feet long, six feet wide
and six feet high, which was built for them at Plean Colliery in
Stirlingshire. They used old fireclay bricks for the faces and pit props as
timber, and filled the cavity between the walls with small cubes of basalt
rubble. They covered the top with turf and then piled about four tons of
scrap timber and brushwood against the walls and set fire to them. Because
of a snowstorm in progress, a strong wind fanned the blazing mixture of wood
and stone so that the inner core did attain some vitrification of the rock.
In June 1937, Childe and Thorneycroft duplicated their test
vitrification at the ancient fort of Rahoy, in Argyllshire,
using rocks found at the site. Their experiments did not resolve any of the
questions surrounding vitrified forts, however, because they had only proven
that it was theoretically possible to pile enough wood and brush on top of a
mixture of wood and stone to vitrify the mass of stone. One criticism of
Childe is that he seems to have used a larger proportion of wood to
stone than many historians believe made up the ancient wood and stone
An important part of Childe's theory was that it was invaders, not
the builders, who were assaulting the forts and then setting fire to the
walls with piles of brush and wood; however, it is hard to understand why
people would have repeatedly built defenses that invaders could destroy with
fire, when great ramparts of solid stone would have survived unscathed.
Critics of the assault theory point out that in order to generate enough
heat by a natural fire, the walls would have to have been specially
constructed to create the heat necessary. It seems unreasonable to suggest
the builders would specifically create forts to be burned or that such a
great effort would be made by invaders to create the kind of fire it would
take to vitrify the walls--at least with traditional techniques.
One problem with all the many theories is their assumption of a primitive
state of culture associated with ancient Scotland.
It is astonishing to think of how large and well coordinated the population
or army must have been that built and inhabited these ancient structures.
Janet and Colin Bord in their book, Mysterious Britain,9
Maiden Castle to give an idea of the vast extent of this
marvel of prehistoric engineering.
It covers an area of 120 acres, with an average width of 1,500 feet and
length of 3,000 feet. The inner circumference is about 11Ú2 miles round, and
it has been estimated... that it would require 250,000 men to defend it!
It is hard, therefore, to believe that this construction was intended to be
a defensive position.
A great puzzle to archaeologists has always been the multiple and
labyrinthine east and west entrances at each end of the enclosure.
Originally they may have been built as a way for processional entry by
people of the Neolithic era. Later, when warriors of the Iron Age
were using the site as a fortress, they probably found them useful as a
means of confusing the attacking force trying to gain entry. The fact that
so many of these "hill-forts" have two entrances--one north of east and the
other south of west--also suggests some form of Sun ceremonial.
With 250,000 men defending a fort, we are talking about a huge army
in a very organized society. This is not a bunch of fur-wearing Picts with
spears defending a fort from marauding bands of hunter-gatherers. The
questions remain, though. What huge army might have occupied these
cliffside forts by the sea or lake entrances? And what massive
maritime power were these people unsuccessfully defending themselves
The forts on the western coast of Scotland are reminiscent of the mysterious
clifftop forts in the Aran Islands on the west
coast of Ireland. Here we truly have shades of the Atlantis
story, with a powerful naval fleet attacking and conquering its neighbors in
a terrible war. It has been theorized that the terrible battles of the
Atlantis story took place in Wales, Scotland, Ireland and
England--however, in the case of the Scottish vitrified forts it looks as if
these were the losers of a war, not the victors. And defeat can be seen
across the land: the war dykes in Sussex, the vitrified forts of Scotland,
the utter collapse and disappearance of the civilization that built these
things. What long-ago Armageddon destroyed ancient Scotland?
In ancient times there was a substance known through writings as Greek
This was some sort of ancient napalm bomb that was hurled by catapult
and could not be put out. Some forms of Greek fire were even
said to burn under water and were therefore used in naval battles. (The
actual composition of
Greek fire is unknown, but it must have contained chemicals
such as phosphorus, pitch, sulphur or other flammable chemicals.)
Could a form of Greek fire have been responsible for the
vitrification? While ancient astronaut theorists may believe
that extraterrestrials with their atomic weapons vitrified these walls, it
seems more likely that they are the result of a man-made apocalypse of a
chemical nature. With siege machines, battleships and Greek fire,
did a vast flotilla storm the huge forts and eventually burn them down in a
The evidence of the vitrified forts is clear: some hugely successful and
organized civilization was living in Scotland, England and Wales in
prehistoric times, circa 1000 BC or more, and was building gigantic
structures including forts. This apparently was a maritime civilization that
prepared itself for naval warfare as well as other forms of attack.
Vitrified Ruins in France, Turkey and the Middle East
Vitrified ruins can also be found in France, Turkey and some areas of the
Vitrified forts in France are discussed in the American Journal of
(vol. 3, no. 22, 1881, pp. 150-151) in an article entitled "On the
Substances Obtained from Some 'Forts Vitrifiés' in France", by M.
The author mentions several forts in Brittany and northern France whose
granite blocks have been vitrified. He cites the "partially fused granitic
rocks from the forts of Château-vieux and of Puy de
Gaudy (Creuse), also from the neighborhood of Saint Brieuc
understandably, could not readily find an explanation for the
Similarly, the ruins of Hattusas in central Turkey, an ancient
Hittite city, are partially vitrified. The Hittites are said
to be the inventors of the chariot, and horses were of great importance to
them. It is on the ancient Hittite stelae that we first see a depiction of
the chariot in use. However, it seems unlikely that horsemanship and wheeled
chariots were invented by the Hittites; it is highly likely that chariots
were in use in ancient China at the same time.
The Hittites were also linked to the world of ancient India.
Proto-Indic writing has been found at Hattusas, and scholars
now admit that the civilization of India, as the ancient Indian texts like
the Ramayana have said, goes back many millennia.
In his 1965 book, The Bible as History,11
cites some of the mysteries concerning the Hittites. According to Keller,
the Hittites are first mentioned in the Bible (in Genesis 23)
in connection with the biblical patriarch Abraham who acquired from
the Hittites a burial place in Hebron for his wife Sarah.
Conservative classical scholar Keller is confused by this, because
the time period of Abraham was circa 2000-1800 BC, while the
Hittites are traditionally said to have appeared in the 16th century
Even more confusing to Keller is the biblical statement (in Numbers
13:29-30) that the Hittites were the founders of Jerusalem.
This is a fascinating statement, as it would mean that the Hittites also occupied
Ba'albek, which lies between their realm and Jerusalem. The
Temple Mount at Jerusalem is built on a foundation of huge
ashlars, as is Ba'albek. The
Hittites definitely used the gigantic megalithic construction
known as cyclopean--huge, odd-shaped polygonal blocks, perfectly fitted
together. The massive walls and gates of Hattusas are eerily
similar in construction to those in the high Andes and other
megalithic sites around the world. The difference at Hattusas
is that parts of the city are vitrified, and the walls of rock have been
partly melted. If the Hittites were the builders of Jerusalem, it would mean
that the ancient Hittite Empire existed for several thousand years and had
frontiers with Egypt. Indeed, the Hittite hieroglyphic script
is undeniably similar to Egyptian hieroglyphs, probably more so than any
Just as Egypt goes back many thousands of years BC and is
ultimately connected to
Atlantis, so does the ancient Hittite Empire. Like the
Egyptians, the Hittites carved massive granite sphinxes, built on a
cyclopean scale and worshipped the Sun. The Hittites also used
the common motif of a winged disc for their Sun god, just as the
Egyptians did. The Hittites were well known in the ancient world because
they were the main manufacturers of iron and bronze goods. The Hittites were
metallurgists and seafarers. Their winged discs may in fact have been
Some of the ancient ziggurats of Iran and Iraq also
contain vitrified material, sometimes thought by archaeologists to be caused
by the Greek fire. For instance, the vitrified remains of the
ziggurat at Birs Nimrod
(Borsippa), south of Hillah, were once confused with the Tower of
Babel. The ruins are crowned by a mass of vitrified brickwork--actual
clay bricks fused together by intense heat. This may be due to the horrific
ancient wars described in the
although early archaeologists attributed the effect to lightning.
Greek Fire, Plasma Guns and Atomic Warfare
If one were to believe the great Indian epic of the Mahabharata,
fantastic battles were fought in the past with airships, particle beams,
chemical warfare and presumably atomic weapons. Just as battles in the 20th
century have been fought with incredibly devastating weapons, it may well be
that battles in the latter days of Atlantis were fought with
highly sophisticated, high-tech weapons.
The mysterious Greek fire was a "chemical fireball".
Incendiary mixtures go back at least to the 5th century BC, when Aineias
the Tactician wrote a book called On the Defence of Fortified
Positions. Said he:12
And fire itself,
which is to be powerful and quite inextinguishable, is to be
prepared as follows. Pitch, sulphur, tow, granulated
frankincense, and pine sawdust in sacks you should ignite if you
wish to set any of the enemy's works on fire.
L. Sprague de Camp mentions in his book, The Ancient Engineers,13
that at some point it was found that petroleum, which seeps out of the
Iraq and elsewhere, made an ideal base for incendiary mixtures
because it could be squirted from syringes of the sort then used in fighting
fires. Other substances were added to it, such as sulphur, olive oil, rosin,
bitumen, salt and quicklime.
Some of these additives may have helped--sulphur at least made a fine
stench--but others did not, although it was thought that they did. Salt, for
instance, may have been added because the sodium in it gave the flame a
bright orange color. The ancients, supposing that a brighter flame was
necessarily a hotter flame, mistakenly believed that salt made the fire burn
more fiercely. Such mixtures were put in thin wooden casks and thrown from
catapults at hostile ships and at wooden siege engines and defense works.
According to de Camp, in AD 673 the architect Kallinikos fled
ahead of Arab invaders from Helipolis-Ba'albek to
There he revealed to Emperor Constantine IV an improved formula
for a liquid incendiary. This could not only be squirted at the foe but
could also be used with great effect at sea, because it caught fire when it
touched the water and floated, flaming on the waves.
De Camp says that Byzantine galleys were armed with a flame-throwing
apparatus in the bow, consisting of a tank of this mixture, a pump and a
nozzle. With the help of this compound, the Byzantines broke the Arab sieges
of AD 674-76 and AD 715-18, and also beat off the Russian attacks of AD 941
and 1043. The incendiary liquid wrought immense havoc; of 800 Arab ships
which attacked Constantinople in 716 AD, only a handful returned home.
The formula for the wet version of Greek fire has never been
discovered. Says de Camp:
By careful security
precautions, the Byzantine Emperors succeeded in keeping the
secret of this substance, called "wet fire" or "wild fire", so
dark that it never did become generally known. When asked about
it, they blandly replied that an angel had revealed the
formula to the first Constantine.
We can, therefore, only guess the nature of the mixture.
According to one disputed theory, wet fire was petroleum with an
admixture of calcium phosphide, which can be made from lime,
bones and urine. Perhaps Kallinikos
stumbled across this substance in the course of alchemical
Vitrification of brick, rock and sand may have been caused by any number of
high-tech means. New Zealand author Robin Collyns suggests in his
Ancient Astronauts: A Time Reversal?,14
that there are five methods by which the ancients or "ancient astronauts"
might have waged war on various societies on planet Earth. He outlines how
these methods are again on the rise in modern society. The five methods are:
punched in the ozone layer
of weather processes
immense energy, such as with an atomic blast
As Collyns's book was published in Britain in 1976, the mentions of
holes in the ozone layer and weather warfare seem strangely prophetic.
Explaining the plasma gun, Collyns says:
The plasma gun has
already been developed experimentally for peaceful purposes:
Ukrainian scientists from the Geotechnical Mechanics
have experimentally drilled tunnels in iron ore mines by using a
i.e., a plasma gas jet which delivers a temperature of 6,000°C.
A plasma, in this case, is an electrified gas. Electrified gases are also
featured in the
the ancient book from India on
vimanas, which cryptically talks of using for fuel the liquid
metal mercury, which could be a plasma if electrified.
Collyns goes on to describe a fusion torch:
This is still
another possible method of warfare used by spacemen, or ancient
advanced civilizations on Earth. Perhaps the solar mirrors of
antiquity really were fusion torches? The fusion torch is
basically a further development of the plasma jet.
In 1970 a theory to develop a fusion torch was presented at the
New York aerospace science meeting by Drs Bernard J. Eastlund
and William C. Cough. The basic idea is to generate a
fantastic heat of at least fifty million degrees Celsius which
could be contained and controlled. That is, the energy released
could be used for many peaceful applications with zero
radioactive waste products to avoid contaminating the
environment, or zero production of radioactive elements which
would be highly dangerous, such as plutonium which is the most
deadly substance known to man. Thermonuclear fusion occurs
naturally in stellar processes, and unnaturally in man-made
The fusion of a deuterium nucleus (a
heavy hydrogen isotope which can be easily extracted from sea
water) with another deuterium nucleus, or with tritium (another
isotope of hydrogen) or with helium, could be used. The actual
fusion torch would be an ionised plasma jet which would vaporize
anything and everything that the jet was directed at--if...used
for harmful purposes--while for peaceful applications, one use
of the torch could be to reclaim basic elements from junk
University of Texas scientists announced in 1974
that they had actually developed the first experimental
fusion torch which gave an incredible heat output of
ninety-three degrees Celsius. This is five times the previous
hottest temperature for a contained gas and is twice the minimum
heat needed for fusion, but it was held only for one
fifty-millionth of a second instead of the one full second which
would be required.
It is curious to note here that Dr Bernard Eastlund is the patent
holder of another unusual device--one that is associated with the
High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program
based at Gakona, Alaska. HAARP is allegedly linked to weather
manipulation--one of the ways in which Collyns
thinks the ancients waged warfare.
As far as holes in the ozone layer and weather manipulation go, Collyns
have discussed and proposed at the United Nations a ban on
developing new warfare ideas such as creating holes or "windows"
in the ozone layer to bombard specific areas of the Earth with
increased natural ultra-violet radiation, which would kill all
life-forms and turn the land into barren desert.
ideas discussed at the meeting were the use of "infrasound" to
demolish ships by creating acoustic fields on the sea, and
hurling a huge chunk of rock into the sea with a cheap atomic
device. The resultant tidal wave could demolish the coastal
fringe of a country. Other tidal waves could be created by
detonating nuclear devices at the frozen poles. Controlled
floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and droughts directed towards
specific targets and cities are other possibilities.
Finally, although not a new method of warfare, incendiary
weapons are now being developed to the point where "chemical
fireballs" will be produced which radiated thermal energy
similar to that of an atomic bomb.
Vitrified Ruins in California's Death Valley: Evidence of Atomic War?
In Secrets of the Lost Races,16
Rene Noorbergen discusses the evidence for a cataclysmic war in the
remote past that included the use of airships and weapons that vitrified
The most numerous
vitrified remains in the New World are located in the
western United States. In 1850 the American
Captain Ives William Walker was the first to view some of
these ruins, situated in Death Valley.
He discovered a city about a mile long, with the lines of the
streets and the positions of the buildings still visible. At the
center he found a huge rock, between 20 to 30 feet high, with
the remains of an enormous structure atop it. The southern side
of both the rock and the building was melted and vitrified.
Walker assumed that a volcano had been responsible for this
phenomenon, but there is no volcano in the area. In addition,
tectonic heat could not have caused such a liquefication of the
An associate of
Captain Walker who followed up his initial
exploration commented: "The whole region between the rivers Gila
and San Juan is covered with remains. The ruins of cities are to
be found there which must be most extensive, and they are burnt
out and vitrified in part, full of fused stones and craters
caused by fires which were hot enough to liquefy rock or metal.
There are paving stones and houses torn with monstrous cracks
[as though they had] been attacked by a giant's fire-plough."
These vitrified ruins in Death Valley sound fascinating--but
do they really exist? There certainly is evidence of ancient civilizations
in the area. In Titus Canyon, petroglyphs and inscriptions have been
scratched into the walls by unknown prehistoric hands. Some experts think
the graffiti might have been made by people who lived here long before the
Indians we know of, because extant Indians know nothing of the glyphs and,
indeed, regard them with superstitious awe.
Says Jim Brandon in Weird America:17
Piute legends tell
of a city beneath Death Valley that they call
Tom Wilson, an Indian guide in the 1920s, claimed that his
grandfather had rediscovered the place by wandering into a
miles-long labyrinth of caves
beneath the valley floor.
Eventually the Indian came to
an underworld city where the people spoke an incomprehensible
language and wore clothing made of leather.
told this story after a prospector named
White claimed he had fallen through the floor of an
abandoned mine at Wingate Pass and into an unknown tunnel.
White followed this into a series of rooms, where he found
hundreds of leather-clad humanoid mummies. Gold bars were
stacked like bricks and piled in bins.
claimed he had explored the caverns on three occasions. On one,
his wife accompanied him; and on another, his partner, Fred
Thomason. However, none of them [was] able to relocate the
opening to the cavern when they tried to take a group of
archaeologists on a tour of the place.
Go to Part 2
Steiger, Brad and Ron Calais, Mysteries of Time & Space,
Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1974.
Corliss, William, Geological Anomalies, The Sourcebook Project,
Glen Arm, Maryland, 1974.
Corliss, William, Ancient Man: A Handbook of Puzzling Artifacts,
The Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, Maryland, 1978.
Welfare, Simon and John Fairley, Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious
World, Wm Collins & Sons, London, 1980.
Janet and Colin Bord, Mysterious Britain, Granada Publishing,
Edwards, Frank, Strangest of All, Ace Books, New York, 1956.
Keller, Werner, The Bible As History, Hodder & Stoughton,
Sprague de Camp, L., The Ancient Engineers, Ballantine Books,
New York, 1960.
Collyns, Robin, Ancient Astronauts: A Time Reversal?, Sphere
Books, London, 1976.
Bharadwaaja, Maharshi, Vymaanika-Shaastra, translated and
published by G.R. Josyer, Mysore, India, 1979.
Noorbergen, Rene, Secrets of the Lost Races, Barnes & Noble
Publishers, New York, 1977.
Brandon, Jim, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, New York, 1978.